PARTI DE VORBIRE N보다/ GRAMMAR N보다

[RO]
– 보다 se foloseste atunci cand dorim sa facem o comparatie intre 2 lucruri, doua fapte sau doua situatii.
– se traduce in limba romana prin ‘mai …. decat’ ‘mai….comparativ cu’
– 보다 se adauga unui substantiv pentru a forma N (subst)이/가 보다~하다, insa ordinea sbstantivelor poate fi modificata fara ca propozitia sa isi schimbe sensul.

[ENG]
– 보다 is used when we want to make a comparison between2 things, 2 situation, e facts, etc.
– It correspond in English to ‘more….than’ or ‘-er ….than’.
– 보다 is added to a noun to form N이/가 보다~하다 ,but the noun with 보다 can be reversed with no change in meaning.

Exemplu/ Example:

사과보다 딸기를 좋아해요.
Imi plac mai mult capsunile decat merele.
I like more strawberries than apples.

어제보다 오늘이 추워요.
Azi este mai frig ca ieri.
Today is colder than yesterday.

동생보다 수영을 잘해요.
Inot mai bine decat fratele meu.
I swim better than my brother.

In conversatie / In conversation :

A : 안나씨 , 토요일이 바빠요, 일요일이 바빠요?
Ana, esti ocupata Sambata sau Duminica?
Anna, are you busy Saturday or Sunday?
B : 저는 일요일에 교회에 가요. 그래서 토요일보다 일요일이 더 바빠요.
Duminica merg la biserica. Asa ca sunt mai ocupata Duminica decat Sambata.
On Sunday I go to church. So, I am more busy on Sunday than Saturday.

A : 제주도하고 서울하고 어디가 더 따뜻해요?
Unde este mai cald, In Jeju sau in Seul?
Where is warmer, in Jeju or in Seoul?
B : 제주도가 서울보다 더 따뜻해요.
In Jeju este mai cald decat in Seul.
Jeju is warmer than Seoul.

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PARTI DE VORBIRE N처럼, N같이/ GRAMMAR N처럼, N같이

[RO]
– 처럼/같이 exprima faptul ca o actiune sau un lucru este la fel sau aproape la fel ca substantivul dinaintea lui.
– are corespodent in limba romana pe “la fel ca” sau “la fel de….ca”

[ENG]
– 처럼/같이 expresses that some action or thing appears the same or very similar to the preceding noun.
– It corresponds to “like” or “as…as” in English.

Substantiv + 처럼/같이 – Noun + 처럼/같이

아기처럼 웃어요 (아기같이 웃어요) – Rad ca un copil / Laugh like a baby.
실크처럼 부드러워요 (실크같이 부드러워요 ) – Fin ca matasea. / Soft like silk.

De retinut!/ Check it out!
[RO]
-처럼/같이 este folosit de coreeni pentru a exprima caracteristici metaforice (cum ar fi compararea cu un animal sau orice lucru din natura).
– cateva exemple :

호랑이처럼 무섭다 (cineva infricosator/infricosator ca un tigru)
토끼처럼 귀업다 (cineva dragut/dragut ca un iepuras)
돼지처럼 뚱뚱하다 (cineva supraponderal/gras ca un porc ㅋㅋㅋ)
바다처럼 마음이 넓다 (cineva foarte generos/un suflet mare ca intinderea marii)

[ENG]
– 처럼/같이 are often used by Koreans to express characteristics metaphorically by comparing them to animals or other things in nature.
– some examples:

호랑이처럼 무섭다 (someone scary/scary like a tiger)
토끼처럼 귀업다 (someone cute/cute like a rabbit)
돼지처럼 뚱뚱하다 (someone overweight/ fat like a pig)
바다처럼 마음이 넓다 (someone very generous/ big heart like sea)

In conversatie / In conversation
A: 하민씨 여자 친구가 예뻐요?
Hamin iubita ta este frumoasa?
Hamin your girlfriend is pretty?

B: 네, 미스코리아처럼 예뻐요.
Da, e la fel de frumoasa ca Miss Coreea.
Yes, she is pretty like Miss Korea.

A: 서울이 복잡해요?
Orasul Seul este aglomerat?
Is Seoul crowded?

B: 네, 일본 도쿄처럼 복잡해요.
Da, este la fel de aglomerat ca Tokyo, Japonia.
Yes, it’s crowded like Tokyo, Japan.

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N쯤/ GRAMMAR N쯤

[RO]
– 쯤 se adauga la substantive care exprima numere, cantitati, perioade de timp, pentru a oferi o aproximare.
– are echivalent in limba romana pe “in jur de” sau “cam”.

[ENG]
– 쯤 is added to nouns denoting numbers, quantities and time to indicate approximation.
– it corresponds to ‘about’ or ‘around’ in English.

Exemple/ Examples:
Substantiva +쯤 / Noun + 쯤

한시 만납시다. /Ne intalnim in jurul orei 1./Let’s meet around 1.
두달 배웠어요. / Am invatat cam 2 luni/ I studied about 2 months.
50,000원 있어요./ Am in jur de 50.000 Won/ I have around 50,000 Won.

De retinut ! /Check it out!
Atunci cand dorim sa exprimam un pret, ‘substantiv쯤 하다 ‘ se foloseste mai des decat ‘substantiv쯤 이다‘.

Ex : 사과가 요즘 얼마쯤 해요?
Cat mai costa merele in zilele astea?
How much are the apples these days?
요즘 3개에 2,000원쯤 해요.
Zilele acestea sunt in jur de 2.000 Won pentru 3 mere.
These days they cost around 2,000 Won for 3 apples

In conversatie / In conversation:
A: 내일 몇 시쯤 만날까요?
Cam la ce ora ne vedem maine?
Around what time we’ll meet tomorrow?

B: 1시쯤 어때요? 수업이 12시 50분에 끝나요.
Ce parere ai (daca ne intalnim) in jurul orei 1? Ora mea (la scoala) se termina la 12.50.
How about around 1 o’clock? My class ends at 12.50.

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N(이)나 2 /GRAMMAR : N(이)나 2

[RO]

    • Asa cum ati vazut si in descrierea titlului, exista 2 forme ale partii de vorbire (이)나. Prima forma am explicat-o in lectia anterioara. Aceasta forma difera fata de cea din post-ul anterior.
    • Aici, (이)나 indica faptul ca numarul sau cantitatea a ceva este mai mare cat ne-am fi asteptat sau decat ar fi normal.
    • Are echivalent in limba romana pe ” la fel de mult” sau “nu mai putin de/ decat ” .
    • Atunci cand substantivul precedent se termina in vocala , se adauga 나, iar atunci cand de termina in consoana, se adauga 이나.

[EN]

    • As I mentioned in the title, exist 2 forms of particle (이)나. First form I explained in previous lesson. This form is different than the previous form.
    • Here (이)나 indicates that the number or amount of something is much higher or more than expected, or higher than what is generally considered normal.
    • It corresponds to “as many as” or “no less than’ in English.
    • When added to words ending in a vowel, 나 is added, and when added to words ending in consonants, 이나 is added.

Substantive care se termina in vocale + 나

바나나를 일곱 개 먹었어요.
Am mancat nu mai putin de 7 banane / I ate no less than 7 bananas.

한 시간 동안 30 페이지 읽었어요.
Intr-o ora am citit nu mai putin de 30 de pagini/
In one hour I read no less than 30 pages.

Substantive care se termina in consoane + 이나

친구에게 다섯 번이나 전화했어요
L-am sunat pe prietenul meu nu mai putin de 5 ori/
I called my friends no less than 5 times.

어제 열두 시간이나 잤어요.
Ieri am dormit nu mai putin de 12 ore/
Yesterday i slept no less than 12 hours.

In conversatie / In conversation :

어제 술을 많이 마셨어요?
Ieri ai baut mult alcool?/ Yesterday did you drink a lot of alcohol?
네, 맥주를 열 병이나 마셨어요.
Da, am baut nu mai putin de 10 beri/
I drank no less than 10 beers.

기차 시간이 얼마나 남았어요?
Cat timp a mai ramas pana vine trenul?/
How long time left before the train arrives?
30분이나 남았어요.
Nu mai putin de 30 de minute/
No less than 30 minutes.

 

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N(이)나 1 /GRAMMAR : N(이)나 1

[RO]
– Partea de vorbire N(이)나 se foloseste in situatiile in care avem de ales intre 2 substantive. Atunci cand substantivul de dinainte se termina in vocala, se adauga 나, iar atunci cand se termina in consoana, se adauga (이)나.
– In cazul adjectivelor si verbelor,-거나 se adauga la sfarsit.

[EN]
– (이)나 means that one of the two or more listed nouns will be chosen. When the preceding noun ends in a vowel, 나 is used, and when the noun ends in a consonant, 이나 is used.
– In case of adjectives and verbs, -거나 is added to the verb stem.

Substantive care se termina in vocale + 나/ Nouns ending in vowel + 나
수박을 사요.
Cumpar capsuni sau pepene /
I buy strwaberry or watermelon.

물을 마셔요.
Beau lapte sau apa /I drink milk or water.

산에 가요.
Ma duc la mare sau la munte / I go to the sea or to the mountains.

Substantive care se termina in consoane + 이나 / Nouns ending in consonants + 이나

이나 딸기를 사요.
Cumpar pepene sau capsuni / I buy watermelon or strawberry.

이나 우유를 마셔요.
Beau apa sau lapte / I drink water or milk.

이나 바다에 가요.
Ma duc la munte sau la mare / I go to the mountains or to the sea.

In conversatie / In conversation :

무엇을 살 거예요? Ce vei cumpara?/What will you buy?
구두 가방을 살 거예요. Voi cumpara pantofi sua geanta/ I’ll buy shoes or bag.
이 선생님이나 김 선생님에게 물어보세요.
Te rog intreaba-l pe profesorul Lee sau profesorul Kim.
Please ask teacher Lee or teacher Kim.

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N(으)로 /GRAMMAR : N으로

Exista doua moduri de a interpreta aceasta parte de vorbire :

1. (으)로 exprima directia (catre un loc). Are echivalent in limba romana pe “catre” si “la”. Atunci cand substativul caruia ii este atribuita aceasta parte de vorbire se termina in vocala sau ㄹ, se adauga 로. Atunci cand se termina in consoana se adauga (으)로.

(으)로 expresses a direction (toward a place). It means “to” or ‘towards’ in English. When the preceding noun ends in a vowel or ㄹ,로 is used, and when the noun ends in a consonant, 으로 is added.

Exemplu/ Example :
오른쪽으 가세요. 은행이 나와요. / Mergeti catre dreapta. Veti vedea o banca./ Please go to the right. You’ll see a bank.

앞으 쭉 가세요. 우체국이 있어요. / Mergeti drept inainte. Acolo este posta / Go straight ahead. There’s a post office.

2. (으)로 se foloseste deasemenea atunci cand mentionam un mijloc de transport, unelte sau materiale pentru a construi ceva. Are corespondent in limba romana pe “din’ sau ‘cu/folosind”.

(으)로 is also used when expressing means of transport, tools and materials used to make something. This meaning corresponds to “by” or “with” and “from” in English.

Exemplu/ Example:
부산에 기차 갈 거예요. /
Am sa ma duc in Busan cu trenul./
I’ll go to Busan by train.

가위로 종이를 잘라요.
Tai hartia cu foarfeca.
I cut the paper with scissors.

밀가루 빵을 만들어요.
Fac paine din faina.
I make bread from flour.

Substantive care se termina in vocale sau ㄹ+로
Noun ending in vowels or ㄹ+로

버스 가요.
비행기 왔어요.
한국어 말하세요.
잘라요.

Substantive care se termina in consoane + 으로
Noun ending in consonant+ 으로

왼쪽으로 가세요.
오른쪽으로 가세요.
트럭으로 가요.
콩으로 만들어요.

Atunci cand folosim verbe pentru a exprima mijlocul de transport, in locul lui (으)로 vom folosi 아/어서.
When we are using a verb to express the way of trasnport, we will use 아/어서 instead of (으)로.

Exemplu/Example:

서울에서 부산까지 운전해서 갔어요.
Am condus din Seul pana in Busan.
I drove from  Seoul to Busan.

Diferente /Difference:

Care este diferenta intre 차로 왔어요 si 운전해서 왔어요?
차로 왔어요 inseamna ca persoana a calatorit cu masina, nefiind specificat daca persoana respectiva a condus sau a fost pasager.
In schimb, 운전해서 왔어요 inseamna ca persoana a condus defapt pana la destinatie.

What is the difference between 차로 왔어요 and 운전해서 왔어요?
차로 왔어요 means that the person traveled or got in the car without be mentioned if the person actually drove the car or was just a passanger.On the other hand, 운전해서 왔어요 can only be used when the subject actually drove the car.

In conversatie/ Conversation :

A: 실례합니다.은행이 어디에 있어요?
Ma scuzati, unde este banca?
Pardon me. Where is the bank?
B: 저 약국 앞에서 오근쪽으로 가세요.
Mergeti pana la farmacia aceea si faceti dreapta.
Go until that pharmacy and go to the right.

A: 이 과자가 맛있어요. 뭐 만들었어요?
Acest snack este foarte bun. Din ce este facut?
This snack is very good. What is made from?
B: 이과자는 쌀 만들었어요.
Aceasta prajiturica este facuta din orez.
This snack is made of rice.

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N 도 / GRAMMAR : PARTICLES N 도

RO

– 도 se ataseaza mereu la sfarsitul subiectului si pronumele unei propozitii.
– In limba romana se traduce prin : “de asemenea”, “la fel”

ENG

– 도 is used after subject and object nouns .
– This meaning corresponds to “also” or “too” in English.

Substantive + 도 / Noun + 도

나는 한국 사람입니다. 그리고 친구 한국사람입니다.
Eu sunt coreean. Si prietenul meu este de asemenea coreean.
I am Korean. My friend is also Korean.

아버지는 돈이 많습니다. 그리고 시간 많습니다.
Tatal meu are multi bani. Si de asemenea are si timp.
My father has a lot of money. And also he has a lot of time.

REGULI / RULES

1) Atunci cand atasam 도 la subiectul propozitiei, particula de la sfarsitul subiectului va fi omisa.
When we add 도 to a subject, the subject particle will be omitted.

ex : 나는 한국사람 이에요. 그리고 친구 한국 사람이에요. (FORMA GRESITA / WRONG)
나는 한국 사람 이에요. 그리고 친구 한국 사람이에요. (FORMA CORECTA/ CORRECT)

2) Atunci cand atasam 도 la obiectul propozitiei, 을/를 se va omite.
When we add 도 to the object, 을/를 will be omitted.

ex: 나는 사과를 좋아해요. 그리고 딸기 좋아해요 (GRESIT/ WRONG)
나는 사과를 좋아해요. 그리고 딸기 좋아해요 (CORECT/ CORRECT)

3) Atunci cand atasam 도 la alte parti de vorbire, 도 nu va fi omis din propozitie.
When we add 도 to particles other than subject or object, 도 will not be omitted.

ex : 일본에 친구가 있어요. 그리고 미국 친구가 있어요. (CORECT/ CORRECT)
일본에 친구가 있어요. 그리고 미국  친구가 있어요. (GRESIT/ WRONG)
Am un prieten in Japonia. Am de asemenea am unul si in America.
I have a friend in Japan. I also have a friend in America.

In conversatie / In conversation

뭐 먹을 거예요?
Ce vei manca?
What will you eat?

비빔밥을 먹을 거예요. 그리고 된장찌개도 먹을 거예요.
Am sa mananc bibimbap. Am sa mananc deasemenea si dwenjang jjigae.
I will eat bibimbap. I will also eat dwenjang jjigae.

VOCABULAR :MANCARURI COREENE (korean food) 한식

불고기 (BULGOGI) – Carne marinata in sos de soia alaturi de legume preparate la foc mediu. Nu este o mancare picanta. Daca se prepara cu carne de vita, atunci se numeste 소불고기.
Marinated meat in soy sauce among with vegetables cooked on medium fire. Is not spicy food. If use beef, the name will be 소불고기
삼겹살 (SAMGYEOPSAL) – gratar coreean. Carne de porc preparata la gratar. Se serveste alaturi de diferite salate si garnituri.
Korean bbq. Pork meat cooked on grill. Served with many side dishes and salads.
갈비 (GALBI) -Coaste de porc sau de vita. Pork or beef ribs.
비빔밥 (BIBIMBAP) – Orez cu legume. Rice with vegetables.
냉면 (NAEGMYEON) – Noodles in supa rece. Noodles in cold soup
국수 (GUKSU) – Noodles in supa calda cu legume. Noodles with vegetables in hot soup
칼국수 (KALGUKSU) –  Taitei de casa in supa calda cu legume. Noodles with vegetables and hot soup
만둣국 (MANDUKUK) – Supa din mandu (galuste coreene). Dumpling soup
떡국 (TTEOKKUK) -Supa din tteok (prajitura din orez). Tteok soup (rice cake soup)
김치찌개 (KIMCHIJJIGAE) – Supa din kimchi. Este picanta. Kimchi soup. Is spicy food.
된장찌개 (DWENJANGJJIGAE) -Supa din dwenjang (pasta de soia fermentata). Dwenjang soup ( fermentated soya paste)
부대찌개 (BUDAEJJIGAE)- Se mai numeste si supa soldatului. Este foarte picanta. Its called also the soupof soldiers. It is very spicy.
순두부찌개 (SUNDUBUJJIGAE) – Supa picanta cu tofu. Spicy tofu soup
갈비탕 (GALBITANG) -Supa din  coaste de vita sau porc. Este o mancare foarte sanatoasa care se recomanda pentru intarirea sistemului imunitar.
Ribs soup. Is very healthy food. Is recommanded for make the imunity system stronger.
삼계탕(SAMGYETANG) -Supa de pui cu radacina de ginseng. De asemenea este o supa foarte sanatoasa si se recomanda in perioadele reci ale anului pentru a preveni gripa.
Chicken soup with ginseng root. Very healthy food recommanded to eat especially in cold period to prevent the flu.
설렁탕 (SEOLONTANG) – Supa de vita. Beef soup
육개장 (Yukgaejang) Supa picanta de vita . Spicy beef soup
버섯전골 (BEOSEOTJEONGOL) – Supa de ciuperci. Mushroom soup
김밥 (Kimbap) -Sushi coreean. Korean sushi
떡볶이 (DDEOBOKKI) – Tocanita din prajitura de orez ( tteok spicy stew)
순대 (SUNDAE) – Carnati coreeni. Korean sausage
라면(RAMYEON) -RAMYEON
쫄면( JJEOLMYEON) – Noodle elastici picanti (spicy elastic noodles)
인절미(INJEOLMI) -Prajitura dulce de orez (sweet rice cake)
시루떡( SIRUDDEOK)-Prajitura de orez (rice cake)
무지개떡(MUJIGAEDDEOK) -Tort de orez multicolor (multicolor rice cake)
수제비(SUGEBI) -Supa de paste (pasta soup)
호떡 (Hotteok) -gogosi umplute cu zahar brun si nuci (donuts with brown melt sugar and nuts)

VOCABULAR : IMBRACAMINTE 2 (의류)

코트 (koteu) – PALTON (coat)
모피 코트 (mopi koteu) – HAINA DE BLANA (fur coat)
트렌치코트 (teurenchi koteu) – TRENCH (trench coat)
카디건 (kadigeon) – CARDIGAN (cardigan)
가죽 코트 (gajuk koteu) – HAINA DE PIELE (leather coat)
한복 (hanbok) – HAINA TRADITIONALA COREEANA (korean traditional cloth)
비옷 (bi-ot) – PELERINA DE PLOAIE (rain coat)
수영복 (suyeongbok) – COSTUM DE BAIE (swimsuit)
스키복 (seukibok) – COSTUM DE SKI (ski suit)
작업복 (jakeobbok) – HAINE DE LUCRU (work clothes)
교복 (kyeobok) – UNIFORMA SCOLARA (school uniform)
트레이닝복 (teureiningbok) – TRENING (sportswear)
잠옷, 파자마 (jamot, pajama) – PIJAMA (pajama)

사이즈 – MARIMI (size)

XL (특대) – EXTRA LARGE
L (대) – LARGE
M (중) – MEDIUM
S (소) – SMALL
XS (특소)- EXTRA SMALL

옷감 – TEXTURA MATERIAL, TESATURA (cloth texture)

(myeong) – BUMBAC (cotton)
(ma) – CANEPA (hemp)
(mo) – BLANA (fur)
실크 (견) (silk) – MATASE (silk)
레이온 (reion) – RAYON, CELOFIBRA (rayon)
나일론 (naillon) – NAILON (nylon)
(ul) – LANA (wool)

VOCABULAR: PERSOANE – SENTIMENTE 느낌 표현 2

고맙다 (gomabda)- RECUNOSCATOR (to be thankful)
미안하다 (mianhada) – A-I PAREA RAU (to be sorry)
좋아하다 (johahada)- A PLACEA (to like)
사랑하다 (saranghada) – A IUBI (to love)
염려하다 (yeomryeohada) – A FI INGRIJORAT (to be worry)
부러워하다 (bureowohada) – A INVIDIA ( to be envious)
외롭다 (wereobda)-  A SE SIMTII SINGUR  (to feel lonely)
우울하다 (u-ulhada) – A FI DEPRIMAT (to be depressed)
당황하다 (danghwanghada)- A FI CONFUZ (to be confused)
피곤하다 (pigonhada) – A FI OBOSIT ( to  be tired)
졸리다 (jollida)- A FI SOMNOROS (to feel sleepy)
무섭다 (museobda)- A FI SPERIAT (to be scared)
놀랍다 (nollabda) – A FI SURPRINS ( to be surprised)
안심하다 (ansimhada) – A FI USURAT (to be relieved)
초조하다 (chojohada)- A FI TULBURAT (to feel anxious)
편안하다 (pyeonanhada) – A FI LINISTIT ( to be peaceful)
불안하다 (bul-anhada)- A FI NESIGUR (to be insecure)
행복하다 (haengbokhada) – A FI FERICIT (to be happy)
불행하다 (bulhaenghada)-  A FI NEFERICIT (to be unfortunated)
만만하다 (manmanhada)- A FI USOR (to be easy)
지루하다 (jiruhada)- A FI PLICTISITOR (to be boring)
자신 있다 (jasin issda)- A FI CONFIDENT ( to feel confident)
두렵다 (duryeobda)- A FI TEMATOR ( to be afraid)
찌증나다 (jjijeungnada) – A DEVENI ENERVANT ( to become annoyed)
심심하다 (simsimhada) – A FI PLICTISIT (din lipsa de actovitate) ( to be bored)
답답하다 (dabdabhada)- A SE SIMTII SUFOCAT (to be stuffy)
반갑다 ( banggabda) –  A FI INCANTAT (to be pleased)