GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N(이)나 1 /GRAMMAR : N(이)나 1

[RO]
– Partea de vorbire N(이)나 se foloseste in situatiile in care avem de ales intre 2 substantive. Atunci cand substantivul de dinainte se termina in vocala, se adauga 나, iar atunci cand se termina in consoana, se adauga (이)나.
– In cazul adjectivelor si verbelor,-거나 se adauga la sfarsit.

[EN]
– (이)나 means that one of the two or more listed nouns will be chosen. When the preceding noun ends in a vowel, 나 is used, and when the noun ends in a consonant, 이나 is used.
– In case of adjectives and verbs, -거나 is added to the verb stem.

Substantive care se termina in vocale + 나/ Nouns ending in vowel + 나
수박을 사요.
Cumpar capsuni sau pepene /
I buy strwaberry or watermelon.

물을 마셔요.
Beau lapte sau apa /I drink milk or water.

산에 가요.
Ma duc la mare sau la munte / I go to the sea or to the mountains.

Substantive care se termina in consoane + 이나 / Nouns ending in consonants + 이나

이나 딸기를 사요.
Cumpar pepene sau capsuni / I buy watermelon or strawberry.

이나 우유를 마셔요.
Beau apa sau lapte / I drink water or milk.

이나 바다에 가요.
Ma duc la munte sau la mare / I go to the mountains or to the sea.

In conversatie / In conversation :

무엇을 살 거예요? Ce vei cumpara?/What will you buy?
구두 가방을 살 거예요. Voi cumpara pantofi sua geanta/ I’ll buy shoes or bag.
이 선생님이나 김 선생님에게 물어보세요.
Te rog intreaba-l pe profesorul Lee sau profesorul Kim.
Please ask teacher Lee or teacher Kim.

VOCABULAR : MANCARE- RESTAURANT (FOOD-RESTAURANT) / 식당 (음식점)

메뉴 (menyu) – MENIU (menu)
냅킨 (nebkin) – SERVETELE (napkin)
양념통 (yangnyeom tong) – SOLNITE (condiment jar)
개인 점시 (gaein jeomsi) – FARFURIE (dish)
(keop) – PAHAR (cup)
쟁반 (jaengban) – TAVA (tray)
수저통 (sujeo tong) – SUPORT LINGURI (spoon stand)
테이블 (teibeul) – MASA (table)
정수기 (jeongsugi) – DOZATOR DE APA (water purifier)
물수건 (mulsugon) – PROSOP UMED (wet towel)
종업원 (jongeobwon) – ANGAJAT (employee)

가격표 (gagyeok pyo) – LISTA DE PRETURI (price list)
예약석 (yeyak seok) – REZERVARE (reservation)
주인 (juin) – PATRON (owner)
계산서 (kyesanseo) – NOTA DE PLATA (bill, check)

Fraze / Phrases:
* 주문을 받다 – A lua o comanda (to take an order)
* 음식을 주문하다/시키다 – A comanda mancare (to order food)
* 계산하다, 돈을 내다 – A plati (to pay)
* 예약하다 – A face o rezervare (to make a reservation)
* 예약을 취소하다 – A anula o rezervare (to cancel a reservation)
* 배달하다 – A livra (to deliver)

MANCARE – MOD DE PREPARARE KIMCHI / FOOD – HOW TO MAKE KIMCHI

RO
– Dupa cum bine stim cu totii, kimchi este a doua mancare de baza a coreenilor, dupa orez.
– In traducere kimchi inseamna varza fermentata.
– Are gustul acru si putin picant (depinde de timpul de depozitare) si se poate servi ca aperitiv (salata, side dish) sau ca ingredient in mancaruri de baza (supa de kimchi, orez prajit cu kimchi, galuste, pizza coreeana, etc).
– Pe langa gustul delicios (gust pe care unii coreeni nu il apreciaza, existand coreeni care nu pot manca kimchi) aceasta varza fermentata are si o importanta benefica pentru organism. Ajuta la reglarea digestiei si eliminarea toxinelor din organism.
– Astazi va voi prezenta in 7 pasi simpli, cum se poate prepara kimchi.

ENG
– As we all know, Kimchi is the second main food for koreans , after rice.
– In translation Kimchi means fermented cabbage.
– The taste si sour and little spicy (the sour taste deppends of time) and can be served as side dish or as ingredient in main dishes (kimchi soup, kimchi fried rice, dumplings, kimchi pizza, etc).
– Beside the delicious taste (many koreans don’t like kimchi, or can’t eat kimchi), this fermented cabbage is very important for the body. It’s good for digestion and to eliminate the toxines in your body.
– Today I will present you 7 simple steps to prepare kimchi.

INGREDIENTE / INGREDIENTS

배추 3,4포기– 3-4 verze chinezesti (10kg) / 3-4 chinese cabbage (10kg)
ChineseCabbage
굵은 소금 – sare mare (la 1 litru de apa se va folosi o lingura de sare)/Big sault
무 1개 -1 bucata ridiche alba / 1 white raddish

파 200g – 200g ceapa verde / 200g of green onion
마늘 100g – o capatana de usturoi (100g)/ garlic (100g)
생강 15g – 15g ghimbir/ ginger 15g

고춧가루 6큰술 – 6 linguri mari de pudra de chilli (se gaseste pe internet. Puteti cauta denumirea de ‘chilli macinat’ si arata ca in aceasta poza/ red pepper powder 6 big spoon
chili-macinat
– apa / water

MOD DE PREPARARE / HOW TO MAKE

1. 배추를 2~4 등분하다
Se taie varza in 2-4 bucati egale (depinde cat de incapator este vasul in care va fi depozitat)
Cut the cabbage in 2-4 equal pieces (depends of the pot you will deposit)
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2. 배추를 소금물에 절이다
Se amesteca sarea cu apa si se lasa cateva minute pentru a se dizolva.Sa nu uitam de regula “la un litru de apa o lingura mare de sare grunjoasa”. Se scufunda varza in apa cu sare si se lasa in apa timp de 6 ore. Dupa 6 ore se scoate din apa si se scutura de excesul de apa.

Mix sault with water and wait little until the sault is disolved. Don’t forget about the rule “1 liter of water one big spoon of sault”. Put the cabbage inside of water and wait for 6 hours. After 6 hours take it out and make it dry.
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3. 무를 채(를) 썰다
Se taie ridichea alba in felii dupa care se taie firisoare(paie).
Cut the radish in slices and after in small pieces.
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4. 마늘/ 생강을 다지다
Tocati usturoiul si ghimbirul. Taiati ceapa verde in bucati egale.
Chop the garlic and ginger. Cut the green nion in equal parts.
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5. 무채에 고춧가루를 넣어 버무리다
Bucatile de ridiche se amesteca cu pudra de chili.
Mix the sliced raddish with the red pepper powder.
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6. 배추 포기에 소를 넣다
Fiecare parte de varza se va amesteca pe rand cu mixul format din ridiche cu pudra de chili, usturoiul, ghimbirul si ceapa verde tocata. Toate verzele trebuiesc acoperite in intregime de acest sos (chiar si in interiorul verzei).

Every part of cabbage will be covered with mixed made from raddish and red pepper powder, ginger and garlic and green onion. All cabbages have to be covered completely with this mixture (even inside of cabbage).
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7. 독 (용기, 김치냉장고)에 담다.
Verzele se depoziteaza intr-un vas incapator cu capac, sau un butoi micut , se lasa o zi pe balcon sau intr-un loc racoros si umbros. Dupa o zi se depoziteaza in frigider. Se poate consuma dupa 4-5 zile. Daca va place mai acru incercati sa il consumati cat mai tarziu cu putinta. Acest kimchi se poate pastra de la 2 pana la 5 ani.

The cabbages will be moved to mud pot, or big jar, covered. Let one day on the balcony or any place where is dark and cold. After one day move it to the fridge. Can eat it after 4~5 days. If you like it to be more sour, try to eat it after more long time. This kimchi can keep it from 2 to 5 years.
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VOCABULAR : MANCARE /FOOD – INGREDIENTE / INGREDIENTS – 식료품

(ssal) – OREZ (Rice)
보리 (bori) – ORZ (Barley)
밀가루 (milcaru) – FAINA (Flour)
두부 (dubu) – TOFU (Tofu)
미역 (miyeok) – ALGE (seaweed)
당면 (dangmyeon) – TAITEI CHINEZESTI (Chinese noodles)
국수 (kuksu) – TAITEI (Noodles)
(kim) – ALGE USCATE (Dry seaweed)
스파게티 면 (seupagheti myeon) – SPAGHETE (Spaghetti)
마요네즈 (mayeonejeu) – MAIONEZA (Mayonnaise)
치즈 (chijeu) – BRANZA (cheese)
(kull) – MIERE (Honey)
(jem) – GEM (Jam)
된장 (dwenjang) – PASTA DE SOIA FERMENTATA (Fermentate soy paste)
고추장 (kochujang) – PASTA DE CHILI (Chili paste)
(kkae) – SUSAN (Sesame)
고춧가루 (kochutkaru) – PUDRA DE CHILI – BOIA (Chili powder)
후춧가루 (huchutkaru) – PIPER MACINAT (Pepper powder)
설탕 (seoltang) – ZAHAR (Sugar)
소금 (sogeum) – SARE (Salt)
간장 (kanjang) – SOS DE SOIA (Soy sauce)
참기름 (chamkireum) – ULEI DE SUSAN (Sesame oil)
식초 (sikcheo) – OTET (Vinegar)
식용유 (sikyeongyu) – ULEI PENTRU GATIT (Cooking oil)
컵라면 (keopramyeon) – RAMYEON LA PAHAR (Cup ramyeon)
양념 (yangnyeom) – CONDIMENTE (condiments)
후식 (husik) – DESERT (Dessert)
다이어트 (daieoteu) – DIETA (diet) * (nu am vrut sa pun cuvantul dieta dupa ‘desert’ – asa s-a nimerit :)))

Expresii / Expressions

* 짜다 – SARAT (Salty)
* 맵다 – IUTE, PICANT (Spicy,hot)
* 달다 – DULCE (Sweet)
* 쓰다 – AMAR (Bitter)
* 시다 – ACRU (Sour)
* 싱겁다 – FARA GUST (Tasteless)
* 시원하다 – RACORITOR (Refreshing, cool)
* 느끼하다 – Uleios, gras (Greasy)

VOCABULAR :MANCARURI COREENE (korean food) 한식

불고기 (BULGOGI) – Carne marinata in sos de soia alaturi de legume preparate la foc mediu. Nu este o mancare picanta. Daca se prepara cu carne de vita, atunci se numeste 소불고기.
Marinated meat in soy sauce among with vegetables cooked on medium fire. Is not spicy food. If use beef, the name will be 소불고기
삼겹살 (SAMGYEOPSAL) – gratar coreean. Carne de porc preparata la gratar. Se serveste alaturi de diferite salate si garnituri.
Korean bbq. Pork meat cooked on grill. Served with many side dishes and salads.
갈비 (GALBI) -Coaste de porc sau de vita. Pork or beef ribs.
비빔밥 (BIBIMBAP) – Orez cu legume. Rice with vegetables.
냉면 (NAEGMYEON) – Noodles in supa rece. Noodles in cold soup
국수 (GUKSU) – Noodles in supa calda cu legume. Noodles with vegetables in hot soup
칼국수 (KALGUKSU) –  Taitei de casa in supa calda cu legume. Noodles with vegetables and hot soup
만둣국 (MANDUKUK) – Supa din mandu (galuste coreene). Dumpling soup
떡국 (TTEOKKUK) -Supa din tteok (prajitura din orez). Tteok soup (rice cake soup)
김치찌개 (KIMCHIJJIGAE) – Supa din kimchi. Este picanta. Kimchi soup. Is spicy food.
된장찌개 (DWENJANGJJIGAE) -Supa din dwenjang (pasta de soia fermentata). Dwenjang soup ( fermentated soya paste)
부대찌개 (BUDAEJJIGAE)- Se mai numeste si supa soldatului. Este foarte picanta. Its called also the soupof soldiers. It is very spicy.
순두부찌개 (SUNDUBUJJIGAE) – Supa picanta cu tofu. Spicy tofu soup
갈비탕 (GALBITANG) -Supa din  coaste de vita sau porc. Este o mancare foarte sanatoasa care se recomanda pentru intarirea sistemului imunitar.
Ribs soup. Is very healthy food. Is recommanded for make the imunity system stronger.
삼계탕(SAMGYETANG) -Supa de pui cu radacina de ginseng. De asemenea este o supa foarte sanatoasa si se recomanda in perioadele reci ale anului pentru a preveni gripa.
Chicken soup with ginseng root. Very healthy food recommanded to eat especially in cold period to prevent the flu.
설렁탕 (SEOLONTANG) – Supa de vita. Beef soup
육개장 (Yukgaejang) Supa picanta de vita . Spicy beef soup
버섯전골 (BEOSEOTJEONGOL) – Supa de ciuperci. Mushroom soup
김밥 (Kimbap) -Sushi coreean. Korean sushi
떡볶이 (DDEOBOKKI) – Tocanita din prajitura de orez ( tteok spicy stew)
순대 (SUNDAE) – Carnati coreeni. Korean sausage
라면(RAMYEON) -RAMYEON
쫄면( JJEOLMYEON) – Noodle elastici picanti (spicy elastic noodles)
인절미(INJEOLMI) -Prajitura dulce de orez (sweet rice cake)
시루떡( SIRUDDEOK)-Prajitura de orez (rice cake)
무지개떡(MUJIGAEDDEOK) -Tort de orez multicolor (multicolor rice cake)
수제비(SUGEBI) -Supa de paste (pasta soup)
호떡 (Hotteok) -gogosi umplute cu zahar brun si nuci (donuts with brown melt sugar and nuts)

VOCABULAR – INCALTAMINTE – FOOTWEAR – 신발

구두 (gudu) – PANTOFI DE PIELE (leather shoes)
하이힐 (haihil) – PANTOFI CU TOC (high heels)
운동화 (undonghwa) – PANTOFI SPORT, TENESI (sneakers, sport shoes)
등산화 (deungsanhwa) – BOCANCI (mountain boots)
부츠 (bucheu) – CIZME (boots)
샌들 (sendeul) – SANDALE (sandals)
고무신 (gomusin) – PANTOFI DE CAUCIUC (rubber shoes)
장화 (janghwa) – CIZME DE CAUCIUC (rainshoes)
밑창 (milchang) – TALPA (sole)
(gub) – TOC (heel)
(kkeun) – SIRET (shoestring)
구둣주건 (gudujugeon) – INCALTATOR (shoehorn)
슬리퍼 (seulipeu) – PAPUCI (slippers)

VOCABULAR : LENJERIE – UNDERWEAR (속옷)

트렁크 팬티 (teureongkeu penti) – BOXERI (boxer shorts)
삼간팬티 (samkanpenti) – CHILOTI BARBATESTI ( briefs)
러닝셔츠 (reoning syeocheu) – MAIEU (undershirt)
브래지어 (beuraejieo) – SUTIEN (bra)
팬티 (penti) – CHILOTI (underpants)
거들 (geodeul) – BRAU, CORSET (girdle)
팬티스타킹 (pentiseutaking) – DRES (pantyhose)
밴드 스타킹 (bendseutaking) – CIORAPI DRES (knee-highs)

VOCABULAR : IMBRACAMINTE 2 (의류)

코트 (koteu) – PALTON (coat)
모피 코트 (mopi koteu) – HAINA DE BLANA (fur coat)
트렌치코트 (teurenchi koteu) – TRENCH (trench coat)
카디건 (kadigeon) – CARDIGAN (cardigan)
가죽 코트 (gajuk koteu) – HAINA DE PIELE (leather coat)
한복 (hanbok) – HAINA TRADITIONALA COREEANA (korean traditional cloth)
비옷 (bi-ot) – PELERINA DE PLOAIE (rain coat)
수영복 (suyeongbok) – COSTUM DE BAIE (swimsuit)
스키복 (seukibok) – COSTUM DE SKI (ski suit)
작업복 (jakeobbok) – HAINE DE LUCRU (work clothes)
교복 (kyeobok) – UNIFORMA SCOLARA (school uniform)
트레이닝복 (teureiningbok) – TRENING (sportswear)
잠옷, 파자마 (jamot, pajama) – PIJAMA (pajama)

사이즈 – MARIMI (size)

XL (특대) – EXTRA LARGE
L (대) – LARGE
M (중) – MEDIUM
S (소) – SMALL
XS (특소)- EXTRA SMALL

옷감 – TEXTURA MATERIAL, TESATURA (cloth texture)

(myeong) – BUMBAC (cotton)
(ma) – CANEPA (hemp)
(mo) – BLANA (fur)
실크 (견) (silk) – MATASE (silk)
레이온 (reion) – RAYON, CELOFIBRA (rayon)
나일론 (naillon) – NAILON (nylon)
(ul) – LANA (wool)

VOCABULAR: PERSOANE – SENTIMENTE 느낌 표현 2

고맙다 (gomabda)- RECUNOSCATOR (to be thankful)
미안하다 (mianhada) – A-I PAREA RAU (to be sorry)
좋아하다 (johahada)- A PLACEA (to like)
사랑하다 (saranghada) – A IUBI (to love)
염려하다 (yeomryeohada) – A FI INGRIJORAT (to be worry)
부러워하다 (bureowohada) – A INVIDIA ( to be envious)
외롭다 (wereobda)-  A SE SIMTII SINGUR  (to feel lonely)
우울하다 (u-ulhada) – A FI DEPRIMAT (to be depressed)
당황하다 (danghwanghada)- A FI CONFUZ (to be confused)
피곤하다 (pigonhada) – A FI OBOSIT ( to  be tired)
졸리다 (jollida)- A FI SOMNOROS (to feel sleepy)
무섭다 (museobda)- A FI SPERIAT (to be scared)
놀랍다 (nollabda) – A FI SURPRINS ( to be surprised)
안심하다 (ansimhada) – A FI USURAT (to be relieved)
초조하다 (chojohada)- A FI TULBURAT (to feel anxious)
편안하다 (pyeonanhada) – A FI LINISTIT ( to be peaceful)
불안하다 (bul-anhada)- A FI NESIGUR (to be insecure)
행복하다 (haengbokhada) – A FI FERICIT (to be happy)
불행하다 (bulhaenghada)-  A FI NEFERICIT (to be unfortunated)
만만하다 (manmanhada)- A FI USOR (to be easy)
지루하다 (jiruhada)- A FI PLICTISITOR (to be boring)
자신 있다 (jasin issda)- A FI CONFIDENT ( to feel confident)
두렵다 (duryeobda)- A FI TEMATOR ( to be afraid)
찌증나다 (jjijeungnada) – A DEVENI ENERVANT ( to become annoyed)
심심하다 (simsimhada) – A FI PLICTISIT (din lipsa de actovitate) ( to be bored)
답답하다 (dabdabhada)- A SE SIMTII SUFOCAT (to be stuffy)
반갑다 ( banggabda) –  A FI INCANTAT (to be pleased)

PERSOANE – VARSTA (AGE) 나이 (연령)

아기 (a-gi) – BEBELUS (baby)
유아 (iu-a) – INFANT (infant)
어린이 (아이) (orin-i) – COPIL (child)
청소년(cheongsonyeon) -ADOLESCENT
아가씨(agassi) – DOMNISOARA (lady)
청년 (cheongnyeon) -TANAR (young man)
아줌마 (ajumma) -DOAMNA ( FMEIE INTRE DOUA VARSTE) (middle aged woman)
아저씨 ( ajeossi) -BARBAT ADULT (adult man)
노인 ( noin) -BATRAN (old person)

소년 (sonyeon) – BAIAT (boy)
소녀(sonyeo) – FATA (girl)
성인 (seongin) – ADULT
여자 ( yeoja) -FEMEIE (woman)
남자 ( namja) – BARBAT (man)
어리다 (eorida) -A FI TANAR (VARSTA COPILARIEI) ( to be young, child age)
늙다 (neulgda) – A FI BATRAN (to be old)
동갑 (donggap) -ACEEASI VARSTA (same age)
나이 (na-i)-VARSTA (age)
생일(saengil) -ZIUA NASTERII (birthday)
유부남 (yubunam) -BARBAT CASATORIT (married man)
유부녀 ( yubunyeo) – FEMEIE  CASATORITA (married woman)
임산부( imsanbu) -FEMEIE INSARCINATA ( pregnant woman)
독신 (dongsin) – SINGUR (single)
가정 (kajeong) – FAMILIE, GOSPODARIE (family,home, household)
신랑 (sinlang)  – MIRE (groom)
신부 (sinbu) – MIREASA (bride)

Expresii

나이가 많다 -A FI INAINTAT IN VARSTA
연세가 많다 -A FI BATRAN ( FORMA ONORIFICA)
나이가 적다 -A FI TANAR
젊어 보이다 – A ARATA TANAR
늙어 보이다 – A ARATA BATRAN