PARTI DE VORBIRE N마다

[RO]
– 마다 se foloseste impreuna cu substantivele de timp.
– exprima o repetitie pentru aceeasi situatie sau pentru o situatie similara pentru o anumita de timp.
– are corespondent in limba romana pe “de fiecare data” sau ” o data la …”.

[ENG]
– 마다 is added to time nouns.
– it expresses a repetition of the same situation or a similar situation over a set period of time.
– It translates in English like “every” or “once every”

Exemplu/ Example:
두달마다 머리를 잘라요.
Imi tund parul o data la doua luni.
I cut my hair (once) every two months.

오분마다 지하철이 와요.
Metroul vine o data la 5 minute.
The subway comes (once) every five minutes.

주말마다 여행을 가요.
Merg in excursie in fiecare weekend.
I take a trip every weekend.

점심시간에는 식당마다 자리가 없어요.
La pranz, in fiecare restaurant, nu este nicio masa libera.
During lunchtime , every (all) restaurant/s have no seat available.

Substantive (de timp) + 마다
1시간마다 버스가 출발해요.
Autobuzul pleaca la fiecare ora.
The bus departs every hour.

날마다 청소해요.
Fac curat in fiecare zi.
I clean (home, room) everyday.

해마다 외국 여행을 해요.
In fiecare an calatoresc in strainatate.
Every year I travel abroad.

토요일마다 가족하고 전화해요.
Imi sun familia in fiecare Sambata.
I call my family every Saturday.

In conversatie / In conversation :
A : 이번 주 금요일 저녁에 시간 있어요?
Ai ceva timp liber vineri seara?
Do you have time this Friday evening?
B: 금요일마다 태권도를 배워요. 그래서 시간이 없어요.
In fiecare vineri am ore de Taekwondo. De aceea nu am timp liber.
Every Friday I have Taekwondo lessons. So I don’t have any time.

A: 비행기가 자주 있어요?
Sunt multe zboruri (de avion)?
Are there a lot of flights?
B: 이틀마다 있어요.
Este un zbor la 2 zile.
There’s a flight every two days.

A: 컴퓨터가 교실마다 있어요?
Aveti PC-uri in fiecare clasa?
Are there computers in every classroom?
B: 네, 모든 교실에 다 있어요.
Da, toate clasele au PC.
Yes, all classrooms have them.

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PARTI DE VORBIRE N보다/ GRAMMAR N보다

[RO]
– 보다 se foloseste atunci cand dorim sa facem o comparatie intre 2 lucruri, doua fapte sau doua situatii.
– se traduce in limba romana prin ‘mai …. decat’ ‘mai….comparativ cu’
– 보다 se adauga unui substantiv pentru a forma N (subst)이/가 보다~하다, insa ordinea sbstantivelor poate fi modificata fara ca propozitia sa isi schimbe sensul.

[ENG]
– 보다 is used when we want to make a comparison between2 things, 2 situation, e facts, etc.
– It correspond in English to ‘more….than’ or ‘-er ….than’.
– 보다 is added to a noun to form N이/가 보다~하다 ,but the noun with 보다 can be reversed with no change in meaning.

Exemplu/ Example:

사과보다 딸기를 좋아해요.
Imi plac mai mult capsunile decat merele.
I like more strawberries than apples.

어제보다 오늘이 추워요.
Azi este mai frig ca ieri.
Today is colder than yesterday.

동생보다 수영을 잘해요.
Inot mai bine decat fratele meu.
I swim better than my brother.

In conversatie / In conversation :

A : 안나씨 , 토요일이 바빠요, 일요일이 바빠요?
Ana, esti ocupata Sambata sau Duminica?
Anna, are you busy Saturday or Sunday?
B : 저는 일요일에 교회에 가요. 그래서 토요일보다 일요일이 더 바빠요.
Duminica merg la biserica. Asa ca sunt mai ocupata Duminica decat Sambata.
On Sunday I go to church. So, I am more busy on Sunday than Saturday.

A : 제주도하고 서울하고 어디가 더 따뜻해요?
Unde este mai cald, In Jeju sau in Seul?
Where is warmer, in Jeju or in Seoul?
B : 제주도가 서울보다 더 따뜻해요.
In Jeju este mai cald decat in Seul.
Jeju is warmer than Seoul.

PARTI DE VORBIRE N처럼, N같이/ GRAMMAR N처럼, N같이

[RO]
– 처럼/같이 exprima faptul ca o actiune sau un lucru este la fel sau aproape la fel ca substantivul dinaintea lui.
– are corespodent in limba romana pe “la fel ca” sau “la fel de….ca”

[ENG]
– 처럼/같이 expresses that some action or thing appears the same or very similar to the preceding noun.
– It corresponds to “like” or “as…as” in English.

Substantiv + 처럼/같이 – Noun + 처럼/같이

아기처럼 웃어요 (아기같이 웃어요) – Rad ca un copil / Laugh like a baby.
실크처럼 부드러워요 (실크같이 부드러워요 ) – Fin ca matasea. / Soft like silk.

De retinut!/ Check it out!
[RO]
-처럼/같이 este folosit de coreeni pentru a exprima caracteristici metaforice (cum ar fi compararea cu un animal sau orice lucru din natura).
– cateva exemple :

호랑이처럼 무섭다 (cineva infricosator/infricosator ca un tigru)
토끼처럼 귀업다 (cineva dragut/dragut ca un iepuras)
돼지처럼 뚱뚱하다 (cineva supraponderal/gras ca un porc ㅋㅋㅋ)
바다처럼 마음이 넓다 (cineva foarte generos/un suflet mare ca intinderea marii)

[ENG]
– 처럼/같이 are often used by Koreans to express characteristics metaphorically by comparing them to animals or other things in nature.
– some examples:

호랑이처럼 무섭다 (someone scary/scary like a tiger)
토끼처럼 귀업다 (someone cute/cute like a rabbit)
돼지처럼 뚱뚱하다 (someone overweight/ fat like a pig)
바다처럼 마음이 넓다 (someone very generous/ big heart like sea)

In conversatie / In conversation
A: 하민씨 여자 친구가 예뻐요?
Hamin iubita ta este frumoasa?
Hamin your girlfriend is pretty?

B: 네, 미스코리아처럼 예뻐요.
Da, e la fel de frumoasa ca Miss Coreea.
Yes, she is pretty like Miss Korea.

A: 서울이 복잡해요?
Orasul Seul este aglomerat?
Is Seoul crowded?

B: 네, 일본 도쿄처럼 복잡해요.
Da, este la fel de aglomerat ca Tokyo, Japonia.
Yes, it’s crowded like Tokyo, Japan.

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N쯤/ GRAMMAR N쯤

[RO]
– 쯤 se adauga la substantive care exprima numere, cantitati, perioade de timp, pentru a oferi o aproximare.
– are echivalent in limba romana pe “in jur de” sau “cam”.

[ENG]
– 쯤 is added to nouns denoting numbers, quantities and time to indicate approximation.
– it corresponds to ‘about’ or ‘around’ in English.

Exemple/ Examples:
Substantiva +쯤 / Noun + 쯤

한시 만납시다. /Ne intalnim in jurul orei 1./Let’s meet around 1.
두달 배웠어요. / Am invatat cam 2 luni/ I studied about 2 months.
50,000원 있어요./ Am in jur de 50.000 Won/ I have around 50,000 Won.

De retinut ! /Check it out!
Atunci cand dorim sa exprimam un pret, ‘substantiv쯤 하다 ‘ se foloseste mai des decat ‘substantiv쯤 이다‘.

Ex : 사과가 요즘 얼마쯤 해요?
Cat mai costa merele in zilele astea?
How much are the apples these days?
요즘 3개에 2,000원쯤 해요.
Zilele acestea sunt in jur de 2.000 Won pentru 3 mere.
These days they cost around 2,000 Won for 3 apples

In conversatie / In conversation:
A: 내일 몇 시쯤 만날까요?
Cam la ce ora ne vedem maine?
Around what time we’ll meet tomorrow?

B: 1시쯤 어때요? 수업이 12시 50분에 끝나요.
Ce parere ai (daca ne intalnim) in jurul orei 1? Ora mea (la scoala) se termina la 12.50.
How about around 1 o’clock? My class ends at 12.50.

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N(이)나 2 /GRAMMAR : N(이)나 2

[RO]

    • Asa cum ati vazut si in descrierea titlului, exista 2 forme ale partii de vorbire (이)나. Prima forma am explicat-o in lectia anterioara. Aceasta forma difera fata de cea din post-ul anterior.
    • Aici, (이)나 indica faptul ca numarul sau cantitatea a ceva este mai mare cat ne-am fi asteptat sau decat ar fi normal.
    • Are echivalent in limba romana pe ” la fel de mult” sau “nu mai putin de/ decat ” .
    • Atunci cand substantivul precedent se termina in vocala , se adauga 나, iar atunci cand de termina in consoana, se adauga 이나.

[EN]

    • As I mentioned in the title, exist 2 forms of particle (이)나. First form I explained in previous lesson. This form is different than the previous form.
    • Here (이)나 indicates that the number or amount of something is much higher or more than expected, or higher than what is generally considered normal.
    • It corresponds to “as many as” or “no less than’ in English.
    • When added to words ending in a vowel, 나 is added, and when added to words ending in consonants, 이나 is added.

Substantive care se termina in vocale + 나

바나나를 일곱 개 먹었어요.
Am mancat nu mai putin de 7 banane / I ate no less than 7 bananas.

한 시간 동안 30 페이지 읽었어요.
Intr-o ora am citit nu mai putin de 30 de pagini/
In one hour I read no less than 30 pages.

Substantive care se termina in consoane + 이나

친구에게 다섯 번이나 전화했어요
L-am sunat pe prietenul meu nu mai putin de 5 ori/
I called my friends no less than 5 times.

어제 열두 시간이나 잤어요.
Ieri am dormit nu mai putin de 12 ore/
Yesterday i slept no less than 12 hours.

In conversatie / In conversation :

어제 술을 많이 마셨어요?
Ieri ai baut mult alcool?/ Yesterday did you drink a lot of alcohol?
네, 맥주를 열 병이나 마셨어요.
Da, am baut nu mai putin de 10 beri/
I drank no less than 10 beers.

기차 시간이 얼마나 남았어요?
Cat timp a mai ramas pana vine trenul?/
How long time left before the train arrives?
30분이나 남았어요.
Nu mai putin de 30 de minute/
No less than 30 minutes.

 

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N(으)로 /GRAMMAR : N으로

Exista doua moduri de a interpreta aceasta parte de vorbire :

1. (으)로 exprima directia (catre un loc). Are echivalent in limba romana pe “catre” si “la”. Atunci cand substativul caruia ii este atribuita aceasta parte de vorbire se termina in vocala sau ㄹ, se adauga 로. Atunci cand se termina in consoana se adauga (으)로.

(으)로 expresses a direction (toward a place). It means “to” or ‘towards’ in English. When the preceding noun ends in a vowel or ㄹ,로 is used, and when the noun ends in a consonant, 으로 is added.

Exemplu/ Example :
오른쪽으 가세요. 은행이 나와요. / Mergeti catre dreapta. Veti vedea o banca./ Please go to the right. You’ll see a bank.

앞으 쭉 가세요. 우체국이 있어요. / Mergeti drept inainte. Acolo este posta / Go straight ahead. There’s a post office.

2. (으)로 se foloseste deasemenea atunci cand mentionam un mijloc de transport, unelte sau materiale pentru a construi ceva. Are corespondent in limba romana pe “din’ sau ‘cu/folosind”.

(으)로 is also used when expressing means of transport, tools and materials used to make something. This meaning corresponds to “by” or “with” and “from” in English.

Exemplu/ Example:
부산에 기차 갈 거예요. /
Am sa ma duc in Busan cu trenul./
I’ll go to Busan by train.

가위로 종이를 잘라요.
Tai hartia cu foarfeca.
I cut the paper with scissors.

밀가루 빵을 만들어요.
Fac paine din faina.
I make bread from flour.

Substantive care se termina in vocale sau ㄹ+로
Noun ending in vowels or ㄹ+로

버스 가요.
비행기 왔어요.
한국어 말하세요.
잘라요.

Substantive care se termina in consoane + 으로
Noun ending in consonant+ 으로

왼쪽으로 가세요.
오른쪽으로 가세요.
트럭으로 가요.
콩으로 만들어요.

Atunci cand folosim verbe pentru a exprima mijlocul de transport, in locul lui (으)로 vom folosi 아/어서.
When we are using a verb to express the way of trasnport, we will use 아/어서 instead of (으)로.

Exemplu/Example:

서울에서 부산까지 운전해서 갔어요.
Am condus din Seul pana in Busan.
I drove from  Seoul to Busan.

Diferente /Difference:

Care este diferenta intre 차로 왔어요 si 운전해서 왔어요?
차로 왔어요 inseamna ca persoana a calatorit cu masina, nefiind specificat daca persoana respectiva a condus sau a fost pasager.
In schimb, 운전해서 왔어요 inseamna ca persoana a condus defapt pana la destinatie.

What is the difference between 차로 왔어요 and 운전해서 왔어요?
차로 왔어요 means that the person traveled or got in the car without be mentioned if the person actually drove the car or was just a passanger.On the other hand, 운전해서 왔어요 can only be used when the subject actually drove the car.

In conversatie/ Conversation :

A: 실례합니다.은행이 어디에 있어요?
Ma scuzati, unde este banca?
Pardon me. Where is the bank?
B: 저 약국 앞에서 오근쪽으로 가세요.
Mergeti pana la farmacia aceea si faceti dreapta.
Go until that pharmacy and go to the right.

A: 이 과자가 맛있어요. 뭐 만들었어요?
Acest snack este foarte bun. Din ce este facut?
This snack is very good. What is made from?
B: 이과자는 쌀 만들었어요.
Aceasta prajiturica este facuta din orez.
This snack is made of rice.

VOCABULAR : MANCARE- RESTAURANT (FOOD-RESTAURANT) / 식당 (음식점)

메뉴 (menyu) – MENIU (menu)
냅킨 (nebkin) – SERVETELE (napkin)
양념통 (yangnyeom tong) – SOLNITE (condiment jar)
개인 점시 (gaein jeomsi) – FARFURIE (dish)
(keop) – PAHAR (cup)
쟁반 (jaengban) – TAVA (tray)
수저통 (sujeo tong) – SUPORT LINGURI (spoon stand)
테이블 (teibeul) – MASA (table)
정수기 (jeongsugi) – DOZATOR DE APA (water purifier)
물수건 (mulsugon) – PROSOP UMED (wet towel)
종업원 (jongeobwon) – ANGAJAT (employee)

가격표 (gagyeok pyo) – LISTA DE PRETURI (price list)
예약석 (yeyak seok) – REZERVARE (reservation)
주인 (juin) – PATRON (owner)
계산서 (kyesanseo) – NOTA DE PLATA (bill, check)

Fraze / Phrases:
* 주문을 받다 – A lua o comanda (to take an order)
* 음식을 주문하다/시키다 – A comanda mancare (to order food)
* 계산하다, 돈을 내다 – A plati (to pay)
* 예약하다 – A face o rezervare (to make a reservation)
* 예약을 취소하다 – A anula o rezervare (to cancel a reservation)
* 배달하다 – A livra (to deliver)

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N 밖에 / GRAMMAR : PARTICLES N 밖에

[RO]
– 밖에 exprima singura optiune ramasa valabila, fara nicio alta posibilitate de alegere.
– Are corespondent in limba romana pe “numai”, “decat”.
– Cuvantul care se afla inaintea lui 밖에 trebuie sa descrie un lucru foarte mic cantitativ, si intotdeauna trebuie urmat de forma negativa a propozitiei.

[ENG]
– 밖에 express the only thing or option available, with no possibility of anything else.
– It corresponds to “only” or “nothing but” in English.
– The word that comes before 밖에 has a connotation of being very small or few in number, and a negative form must follow it.

Ex: Substantiv / Noun + 밖에
Forma negativa/ Negative form :

학생들이 두 명밖에 안 왔어요 .
Doar doi elevi au venit / Nu au venit decat doi elevi.
Only two students came.


그 돈으로는 사과를 한 개밖에 못 사요.
Cu banii acestia nu pot sa cumpar decat un mar.
With these money i can buy only one apple

없어요
음식이 조금밖에 없어요.
Nu am decat putina mancare. Am doar putina mancare.
I have only few food.

몰라요
한국어는 ‘안녕하세요”밖에 몰라요.
Nu stiu in limba coreeana decat ‘Buna ziua”/ In limba coreeana stiu doar ‘Buna ziua’ (sa zic).
In Korean I know only “Hello”.

** Chiar daca 밖에 este mereu urmata de forme negative, nu poate fi urmata de ‘아니다’ sau urmata de forma imperativa.
Even if 밖에 is always folllowed by a negative form, it cannot be followed by ‘아니다’or be followed by imperative form.

Ex: 민우는 학생밖에 아니에요 (X)

토마토를 조금밖에 사지 마세요 (X)
토마토를 조금 사세요. (O)
Cumpara doar cateva rosii.
Buy only few tomatoes.

De retinut ! Probabil multi dintre voi v-ati intrebat care este diferenta intre 밖에 si 만. Diferenta este urmatoarea :

Remember! Maybe many of few are wondering what is the difference between 밖에 and 만. The difference is :

1. 밖에 si 만 au aceeasi semnificatie, insa pe cand 만 se poate folosi atat la forma pozitiva cat si la forma negativa, 밖에 este folosita doar la forma negativa.

밖에 and 만 have similar meaning, but while 만 can be used in both positive and negative form, 밖에 is used only in negative sentences.

Ex :
밖에
교실에 재준씨밖에 있어요. (X)
교실에 재준씨밖에 없어요 (O)
In clasa nu e decat Jaejun.
In the class is no one but Jaejun.


교실에는 재준씨만 있어요. (O)
In clasa este doar Jaejun.
In the class is only Jaejun.

교실에는 재준만 없어요.
In clasa lipseste doar Jaejun. Doar Jaejun nu e in clasa.
In the class only Jaejun is not. (All other students are present).

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N 만 / GRAMMAR : PARTICLES N 만

Daca lectia trecuta am prezentat partea de vorbire ‘de asemenea’, astazi voi prezenta partea de vorbire ‘doar’, ‘decat’, ‘numai’. Este una dintre cele mai folosite parti de vorbire, de aceea este important sa intelegem cand si cum se poate folosi.

If in the last lesson I wrote about particle ‘also’, ‘too’, today I will present to you the particle ‘only’,’just’. Is one of the most important particle, that’s why is very important to understand when and how we can use it.

RO

– 만 se foloseste atunci cand dorim sa facem o alegere excluzand alte optiuni.
– Atunci cand se foloseste dupa un numar, inseamna ‘minimum’.
– Se poate traduce in limba romana prin : ‘doar’, ‘decat’, ‘numai’.

ENG

– 만 is use when we want to choose one thing excluding other things.
– It corresponds to ‘only’or ‘just’ in English.
– When we using after a number, it can also mean ‘minimum’.

Formare / Form
SUBSTANTIV + 만 / NOUN + 만

그 식당은 월요일 쉬어요.
Restaurantul acela este inchis doar luni.
That restaurant is closed only on Monday.

우리 아이는 하루 종일 게임 해요.
Copilul nostru toata ziua intreaga doar se joaca.
Our child all day long just play.

– Partea de vorbire 만 poate inlocui alte parti de vorbire intr-o propozitie, cum ar fi 이/가, 은/는 si 을/를, sau se poate folosi impreuna cu acestea.
Atunci cand le folosim impreuna, 만 se adauga primul,dupa care, 이,은 sau 을 pentru a forma 만이, 만은 si 만을.

The particle 만 can be used either in place of the particles 이/가, 은/는 and 을/를, or it can be used together with them. When used together, 만 is added first, followed by 이, 은 or 을, to form 만이, 만은 and 만을.

Exemplu / Example:

* 마이크 대학에 입학했어요. (CORRECT) 마이크만이 대학에 입학했어요.(CORRECT).
Doar Mike a fost acceptat la universitate.
Only Mike was accepted to the university.

– Atunci cand folosim parti de vorbire altele decat 이/가,은/는 si 을/를, 만 se adauga la sfarsit, pentru a forma 에서만, 에게만 si 까지만.
– When used with particles other than 이/가,은/는 and 을/를, 만 comes after the particles to form for example 에서만, 에게만 and 까지만.

Exemplu/ Example:

* 우리 딸은 학교에서만 공부하고 집에서는 공부하지 않아요. (CORRECT)
우리 딸은 학교만에서 공부하고 집에서는 공부하지 않아요. (WRONG)
Fata noastra invata doar la scoala, acasa nu invata.
Our daughter studies only at school, and doesn’t study at home.

In conversatie / In conversation :

학생들이 다 왔어요?
Au venit toti elevii?
Have all the students arrived?

안나씨만 안 왔어요. 다른 학생들은 다 왔어요.
Doar Ana nu a sosit. Ceilalti studenti au ajuns toti.
Only Anna hasn’t arrived. The other students have all arrived.

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N 에게 / 한테

RO
에게/ 한테 se adauga la sfarsitul substantivelor si indica faptul ca substantivul este receptorul sau tinta unei actiuni.
– 한테 este mai des folosit decat 에게.
– 에게/ 한테 se foloseste numai pentru persoane sau alte vietati. Pentru plante, de exemplu,sau pentru locuri, se foloseste 에.
– 에게/ 한테 nu se pot folosi cu toate verbele. Verbele care se folosesc impreuna cu 에게/한테 include 주다 (a da), 선물하다 (a oferi un cadou), 던지다 (a arunca), 보내다 (a trimite, a expedia), 부치다 (a livra, a expedia), 쓰다 (a scrie), 전화하다 (a telefona), 묻다 (a intreba), 가르치다 (a preda, a invata), 말하다 (a vorbi), 팔다 (a vinde), 가다 (a pleca) si 오다 (a veni).

ENG

에게/한테 are added to nouns and indicate that noun is the recipient or the target of an action.
– 한테 is more colloquial than 에게.
– 에게/한테 are only used when the preceding noun is a person or other living creature.
– For plants or places, 에 is added.
– 에게/한테 cannot be used with all verbs. The limited number of verbs they can be used with include 주다 (to give), 선물하다 (to give a present), 던지다 ( to throw), 보내다 (to send), 부치다 (to ship/send), 쓰다 (to write), 전화하다 (to call), 묻다 (to ask), 가르치다 (to teach), 말하다 (to speak), 팔다 (to sell) and 오다 (to come).

Persoane (Person) – Animale (Animal) + 에게 /한테

에게 줘요 – Da-i cainelui / Give to the dog
친구에게 소포를 보내요 – Expediez un colet prietenului meu / I send a parcel to my friend.
친구한테 전화해요 – Il telefonez prietenului meu. / I give a call to my friend.
아기가 엄마한테 와요 – Copilul a venit la mama lui. / Baby came to his mother.

Lucruri (Things) – Plante (Plants) + 에

나무 물을 줘요 – Ud copacul / I give water to the tree.
중국 소포를 보내요 – Trimit un colet in China / I send a parcel in China.
회사 물어봐요 – Intreb la birou. /I ask the office.

In conversatie / In coversation :

누구한테 편지를 써요?
Cui ii scrii aceasta scrisoare?
Who are you writing a letter to?

고향 친구한테 편지를 써요.
Ii scriu prietenului meu din orasul natal.
I write to my hometown friend.

왜 꽃을 샀어요?
De ce ai cumparat flori?
Why did you buy flowers?
여자 친구한테 선물 할 거에요.
Pentru a le oferi prietenei mele.
I will give them to my girlfriend as a present.

Check it out!!

1. Atunci cand facem un favor sau oferim un lucru unei persoane de aceeasi varsta cu noi sau din aceeasi clasa sociala, folosim 에게 주다.
Atunci cand receptorul este o persoana dintr-o clasa sociala inalta,sau mai in varsta, se foloseste 께 in locul a 에게/한테, iar 드리다 (a oferi) in locul la 주다.

Exemplu :

* 나는 할아버지에게 선물을 주었습니다 -> 나는 할아버지 선물을 드렸습니다.
I-am oferit un cadou bunicului meu. / I gave a present to my grandfather.

* 아버지에게 말했습니다 -> 아버지께 말씀드렸습니다.
I-am spus tatalui meu. / I said to my father.