PARTI DE VORBIRE N보다/ GRAMMAR N보다

[RO]
– 보다 se foloseste atunci cand dorim sa facem o comparatie intre 2 lucruri, doua fapte sau doua situatii.
– se traduce in limba romana prin ‘mai …. decat’ ‘mai….comparativ cu’
– 보다 se adauga unui substantiv pentru a forma N (subst)이/가 보다~하다, insa ordinea sbstantivelor poate fi modificata fara ca propozitia sa isi schimbe sensul.

[ENG]
– 보다 is used when we want to make a comparison between2 things, 2 situation, e facts, etc.
– It correspond in English to ‘more….than’ or ‘-er ….than’.
– 보다 is added to a noun to form N이/가 보다~하다 ,but the noun with 보다 can be reversed with no change in meaning.

Exemplu/ Example:

사과보다 딸기를 좋아해요.
Imi plac mai mult capsunile decat merele.
I like more strawberries than apples.

어제보다 오늘이 추워요.
Azi este mai frig ca ieri.
Today is colder than yesterday.

동생보다 수영을 잘해요.
Inot mai bine decat fratele meu.
I swim better than my brother.

In conversatie / In conversation :

A : 안나씨 , 토요일이 바빠요, 일요일이 바빠요?
Ana, esti ocupata Sambata sau Duminica?
Anna, are you busy Saturday or Sunday?
B : 저는 일요일에 교회에 가요. 그래서 토요일보다 일요일이 더 바빠요.
Duminica merg la biserica. Asa ca sunt mai ocupata Duminica decat Sambata.
On Sunday I go to church. So, I am more busy on Sunday than Saturday.

A : 제주도하고 서울하고 어디가 더 따뜻해요?
Unde este mai cald, In Jeju sau in Seul?
Where is warmer, in Jeju or in Seoul?
B : 제주도가 서울보다 더 따뜻해요.
In Jeju este mai cald decat in Seul.
Jeju is warmer than Seoul.

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N쯤/ GRAMMAR N쯤

[RO]
– 쯤 se adauga la substantive care exprima numere, cantitati, perioade de timp, pentru a oferi o aproximare.
– are echivalent in limba romana pe “in jur de” sau “cam”.

[ENG]
– 쯤 is added to nouns denoting numbers, quantities and time to indicate approximation.
– it corresponds to ‘about’ or ‘around’ in English.

Exemple/ Examples:
Substantiva +쯤 / Noun + 쯤

한시 만납시다. /Ne intalnim in jurul orei 1./Let’s meet around 1.
두달 배웠어요. / Am invatat cam 2 luni/ I studied about 2 months.
50,000원 있어요./ Am in jur de 50.000 Won/ I have around 50,000 Won.

De retinut ! /Check it out!
Atunci cand dorim sa exprimam un pret, ‘substantiv쯤 하다 ‘ se foloseste mai des decat ‘substantiv쯤 이다‘.

Ex : 사과가 요즘 얼마쯤 해요?
Cat mai costa merele in zilele astea?
How much are the apples these days?
요즘 3개에 2,000원쯤 해요.
Zilele acestea sunt in jur de 2.000 Won pentru 3 mere.
These days they cost around 2,000 Won for 3 apples

In conversatie / In conversation:
A: 내일 몇 시쯤 만날까요?
Cam la ce ora ne vedem maine?
Around what time we’ll meet tomorrow?

B: 1시쯤 어때요? 수업이 12시 50분에 끝나요.
Ce parere ai (daca ne intalnim) in jurul orei 1? Ora mea (la scoala) se termina la 12.50.
How about around 1 o’clock? My class ends at 12.50.

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N(이)나 2 /GRAMMAR : N(이)나 2

[RO]

    • Asa cum ati vazut si in descrierea titlului, exista 2 forme ale partii de vorbire (이)나. Prima forma am explicat-o in lectia anterioara. Aceasta forma difera fata de cea din post-ul anterior.
    • Aici, (이)나 indica faptul ca numarul sau cantitatea a ceva este mai mare cat ne-am fi asteptat sau decat ar fi normal.
    • Are echivalent in limba romana pe ” la fel de mult” sau “nu mai putin de/ decat ” .
    • Atunci cand substantivul precedent se termina in vocala , se adauga 나, iar atunci cand de termina in consoana, se adauga 이나.

[EN]

    • As I mentioned in the title, exist 2 forms of particle (이)나. First form I explained in previous lesson. This form is different than the previous form.
    • Here (이)나 indicates that the number or amount of something is much higher or more than expected, or higher than what is generally considered normal.
    • It corresponds to “as many as” or “no less than’ in English.
    • When added to words ending in a vowel, 나 is added, and when added to words ending in consonants, 이나 is added.

Substantive care se termina in vocale + 나

바나나를 일곱 개 먹었어요.
Am mancat nu mai putin de 7 banane / I ate no less than 7 bananas.

한 시간 동안 30 페이지 읽었어요.
Intr-o ora am citit nu mai putin de 30 de pagini/
In one hour I read no less than 30 pages.

Substantive care se termina in consoane + 이나

친구에게 다섯 번이나 전화했어요
L-am sunat pe prietenul meu nu mai putin de 5 ori/
I called my friends no less than 5 times.

어제 열두 시간이나 잤어요.
Ieri am dormit nu mai putin de 12 ore/
Yesterday i slept no less than 12 hours.

In conversatie / In conversation :

어제 술을 많이 마셨어요?
Ieri ai baut mult alcool?/ Yesterday did you drink a lot of alcohol?
네, 맥주를 열 병이나 마셨어요.
Da, am baut nu mai putin de 10 beri/
I drank no less than 10 beers.

기차 시간이 얼마나 남았어요?
Cat timp a mai ramas pana vine trenul?/
How long time left before the train arrives?
30분이나 남았어요.
Nu mai putin de 30 de minute/
No less than 30 minutes.

 

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N(이)나 1 /GRAMMAR : N(이)나 1

[RO]
– Partea de vorbire N(이)나 se foloseste in situatiile in care avem de ales intre 2 substantive. Atunci cand substantivul de dinainte se termina in vocala, se adauga 나, iar atunci cand se termina in consoana, se adauga (이)나.
– In cazul adjectivelor si verbelor,-거나 se adauga la sfarsit.

[EN]
– (이)나 means that one of the two or more listed nouns will be chosen. When the preceding noun ends in a vowel, 나 is used, and when the noun ends in a consonant, 이나 is used.
– In case of adjectives and verbs, -거나 is added to the verb stem.

Substantive care se termina in vocale + 나/ Nouns ending in vowel + 나
수박을 사요.
Cumpar capsuni sau pepene /
I buy strwaberry or watermelon.

물을 마셔요.
Beau lapte sau apa /I drink milk or water.

산에 가요.
Ma duc la mare sau la munte / I go to the sea or to the mountains.

Substantive care se termina in consoane + 이나 / Nouns ending in consonants + 이나

이나 딸기를 사요.
Cumpar pepene sau capsuni / I buy watermelon or strawberry.

이나 우유를 마셔요.
Beau apa sau lapte / I drink water or milk.

이나 바다에 가요.
Ma duc la munte sau la mare / I go to the mountains or to the sea.

In conversatie / In conversation :

무엇을 살 거예요? Ce vei cumpara?/What will you buy?
구두 가방을 살 거예요. Voi cumpara pantofi sua geanta/ I’ll buy shoes or bag.
이 선생님이나 김 선생님에게 물어보세요.
Te rog intreaba-l pe profesorul Lee sau profesorul Kim.
Please ask teacher Lee or teacher Kim.

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N(으)로 /GRAMMAR : N으로

Exista doua moduri de a interpreta aceasta parte de vorbire :

1. (으)로 exprima directia (catre un loc). Are echivalent in limba romana pe “catre” si “la”. Atunci cand substativul caruia ii este atribuita aceasta parte de vorbire se termina in vocala sau ㄹ, se adauga 로. Atunci cand se termina in consoana se adauga (으)로.

(으)로 expresses a direction (toward a place). It means “to” or ‘towards’ in English. When the preceding noun ends in a vowel or ㄹ,로 is used, and when the noun ends in a consonant, 으로 is added.

Exemplu/ Example :
오른쪽으 가세요. 은행이 나와요. / Mergeti catre dreapta. Veti vedea o banca./ Please go to the right. You’ll see a bank.

앞으 쭉 가세요. 우체국이 있어요. / Mergeti drept inainte. Acolo este posta / Go straight ahead. There’s a post office.

2. (으)로 se foloseste deasemenea atunci cand mentionam un mijloc de transport, unelte sau materiale pentru a construi ceva. Are corespondent in limba romana pe “din’ sau ‘cu/folosind”.

(으)로 is also used when expressing means of transport, tools and materials used to make something. This meaning corresponds to “by” or “with” and “from” in English.

Exemplu/ Example:
부산에 기차 갈 거예요. /
Am sa ma duc in Busan cu trenul./
I’ll go to Busan by train.

가위로 종이를 잘라요.
Tai hartia cu foarfeca.
I cut the paper with scissors.

밀가루 빵을 만들어요.
Fac paine din faina.
I make bread from flour.

Substantive care se termina in vocale sau ㄹ+로
Noun ending in vowels or ㄹ+로

버스 가요.
비행기 왔어요.
한국어 말하세요.
잘라요.

Substantive care se termina in consoane + 으로
Noun ending in consonant+ 으로

왼쪽으로 가세요.
오른쪽으로 가세요.
트럭으로 가요.
콩으로 만들어요.

Atunci cand folosim verbe pentru a exprima mijlocul de transport, in locul lui (으)로 vom folosi 아/어서.
When we are using a verb to express the way of trasnport, we will use 아/어서 instead of (으)로.

Exemplu/Example:

서울에서 부산까지 운전해서 갔어요.
Am condus din Seul pana in Busan.
I drove from  Seoul to Busan.

Diferente /Difference:

Care este diferenta intre 차로 왔어요 si 운전해서 왔어요?
차로 왔어요 inseamna ca persoana a calatorit cu masina, nefiind specificat daca persoana respectiva a condus sau a fost pasager.
In schimb, 운전해서 왔어요 inseamna ca persoana a condus defapt pana la destinatie.

What is the difference between 차로 왔어요 and 운전해서 왔어요?
차로 왔어요 means that the person traveled or got in the car without be mentioned if the person actually drove the car or was just a passanger.On the other hand, 운전해서 왔어요 can only be used when the subject actually drove the car.

In conversatie/ Conversation :

A: 실례합니다.은행이 어디에 있어요?
Ma scuzati, unde este banca?
Pardon me. Where is the bank?
B: 저 약국 앞에서 오근쪽으로 가세요.
Mergeti pana la farmacia aceea si faceti dreapta.
Go until that pharmacy and go to the right.

A: 이 과자가 맛있어요. 뭐 만들었어요?
Acest snack este foarte bun. Din ce este facut?
This snack is very good. What is made from?
B: 이과자는 쌀 만들었어요.
Aceasta prajiturica este facuta din orez.
This snack is made of rice.

VOCABULAR: PERSOANE: SENTIMENTE 1 느낌 표현 1

기쁘다 (kibbeuda) –A FI FERICIT (to be happy)
슬프다 (seulpeuda) –A FI TRIST (to be sad)
좋다 (johda) – A FI BUN (to be good)
싫다 (silhda) – A URÎ (to hate)
웃다 (utda) – A ZÂMBI ( to smile)
울다 (ulda) – A PLÂNGE (to cry)
자랑스럽다 (jarangseureobda) –A FI MÂNDRU (to be proud)
부끄럽다 (bukkeureobda) – A SE RUŞINA ( to feel shy)
즐겁다 (jeulgeobda) – A FI MULȚUMIT ( to be pleasant)
불쾌하다 (bulkwehada) – A FI NEMULȚUMIT ( to be unpleasant)
화나다 (hwnada) –A FI FURIOS (to be angry)
상쾌하다 (sangkwaehada) – A FI REÎMPROSPĂTAT ( to be refreshed)
기분 좋다 (gibun jeotta) – A AVEA O STARE BUNĂ (to be in a good mood)
기분 나쁘다 (gibun nabbeuda) – A AVEA O STARE REA ( to be in a bad mood)
재미있다 (jaemi itta) – A FI INTERESANT, AMUZANT ( to be interesting, funny)
재미없다 (jaemi eobta) – A NU FI INTERESANT, A NU FI AMUZANT ( uninteresting, not funny)
편하다 (pyeonhada) – COMFORTABIL (comfortable)
불편하다 (pulpyeonhada) – A NU FI COMFORTABIL ( uncomfortable)
만족하다 (manjokhada) – A FI SATISFĂCUT (to be satisfied)
불만스럽다 (bulmanseureobda) – A FI NESATISFĂCUT (no be unsatisfied)
미워하다 (miwohada) – A URÎ (to hate)
감사하다 (gamsahada) – A MULȚUMI (to thank)
수줍다 (sujubda) – A SE RUŞINA, TIMID (to be shy)
대견하다 (daekyeonhada) – ADMIRABIL ( admirable)
혐오하다 (hyeomohada) – A DEZGUSTA ( to disgust)
무관심하다 (mukwasimhada) – A FI INDIFERENT ( to be indifferent)
질투하다 (jiltuhada) – A FI GELOS (to be jealous)
든든하다 (deundeunhada) – A FI PUTERNIC (to be strong)

GRAMATICA : NEGAREA

R*) Propozitiile negative se formeaza schimband verbul 이다 cu 아니다, verbul 있다 cu 없다 si verbul 알다 ( a stii, a cunoaste) cu 모르다 (a nu stii, a nu cunoaste). Pentru acestea, forma propozitiei negative se formeaza prin : 이/가 아니다.

E*) Negative sentences can be made by negating the entire sentence or by negating a word. When you wanna make  a negative sentence, the verb 이다 is changing to 아니다, 있다 change to 없다 and 알다 change to 모르다.
Of these, 아니다 is written in the form 이/가 아니다.

Exemplu:

한국 사람이에요.
Ea este coreeana.
She is korean.
한국 사람아니에요.
Ea nu este coreeana.
She is not korean.

돈이 있어요. 
Am bani.
I have money.
돈이 없어요.
Nu am bani.
I don’t have money.

한국말을 알아요.
Eu stiu limba coreeana.
I know korean.
한국말을 몰라요.
Eu nu stiu limba coreeana.
I don’t know korean.

In conversatie:

민우씨가 학생이에요?
Minu este student?
Is Minu a student?

아니요, 학생 아니에요. 선생님이이에요.
(= 아니요, 학생이 아니라 선생님이에요)
Nu, el nu este student. El este profesor.
No, he is not a student. He is teacher.

오늘 시간이 있어요?
Ai timp astazi?
Do you have some time today?

아니요, 오늘 시간이 없어요. 바빠요.
Nu, astazi nu am timp. Sunt ocupata.
No, I don’t have time today. I am busy.

일본어를 알아요?
Stii limba japoneza?
Do you know Japanese?

아니요, 몰라요.
Nu, nu stiu.
No, I don’t know.

PERSOANE -FAMILIE ( family) 가족

할아버지 ( harabogi)- BUNIC (grandfather)
할머니 (halmoni) -BUNICA (grandmother)
외할아버지 (weharaboji) -BUNIC (din partea mamei) (maternal grandfather)
외할머니 (wehalmoni) -BUNICA (din partea mamei) ( maternal grandmother)
아빠 -아버지 (a-pa,aboji) -TATA (father)
엄마 – 어머니 (eomma,eomoni) -MAMA (mother)
(hyeong) – FRATE MAI MARE (al baiatului) (elder brother of a man)
오빠 (oppa) -FRATE MAI MARE ( al fetei) (elder brother of a woman)
누나 (nuna) -SORA MAI MARE ( al baiatului) (elder sister of a man)
언니 (eonni) –SORA MAI MARE (al fetei) (elder sister of a woman)
(na) -EU (me)
남동생 (namdongseng) –FRATE MAI MIC (younger brother)
여동생 (yeodongseng) – SORA MAI MICA (younger sister)
삼촌 (samcheon) -UNCHI (fratele tatalui) (uncle, younger brother of one’s father)
고모 (gomo) – MATUSA (sora tatalui) (paternal aunt)
고모부 (gomo-bu) – SOTUL MATUSII DIN PARTEA TATALUI (husband of one’s paternal aunt)
이모 (imo) – MATUSA (sora mamei) (maternal aunt)
외삼촌 (wesamcheon) – UNCHI ( fratele mamei) (maternal uncle)

부모 (bu-mo) – PARINTI (parents)
형제 ( hyeongje) -FRATI (brothers)
자매 (jame) -SURORI (sisters)
남매 (namme) – FRATE SI SORA (brother and sister)
부부 (bubu) -CUPLU CASATORIT (married couple)
남편 (nampyeon) – SOT (husband)
부인, 아내, 마누라 ( buin,ane,manura) -SOTIE (wife)
자식 (jasik) – COPIL (child)
(Ddal) -FIICA (daughter)
아들 (adeul) – FIU (son)
장남, 큰아들 ( jangnam,geunadeul) – FIUL CEL MARE ( first son)
막내 ( magne) – MEZINUL FAMILIEI (lastborn)
손자 ( sonja) –NEPOT (grandson)
손녀 (sonnyeo) -NEPOATA (granddaughter)
사촌 (sacheon) – VAR (cousin)
조카 (joka) – NEPOATA ( nephew,niece)
시부모 (sibumo) – SOCRII (parents of one’s husband)
시아버지 (siaboji) -SOCRU MIC (woman’s father in law)
시어머니 (sieomoni) -SOACRA MICA (woman’s sister in law)
장인 (jangin) – SOCRU MARE (man’ father in law)
장모 (jangmo) -SOACRA MARE (man’s mother in law)
사위 (sawi) – GINERE (son in law)
며느리 (myeneuri) –NORA (daughter in law)
친척 (chincheok) – NEAMURI (relative)

Fraze si expresii :

약혼하다 – A fi logodit (to be engaged to marry)
결혼하다 – A se casatorii (To marry)
장가가다 – A se insura ( to marry a woman,as a man)
지집가다 – A se marita ( to marry a man, as a woman)
이혼하다 – A divorta ( to divorce)
재혼하다 – A se recasatorii (to remarry)

PERSOANE : PARTI ALE CORPULUI – Corp si Organe ( 신체와 기관)

목 – GAT (neck)
어깨 – UMAR (shoulder)
가슴 – PIEPT (chest)
팔 – BRAT (arm)
손 – MANA (hand)
손가락 – DEGET (finger)
손목 – INCHEIETURA MAINII (wrist)
손등 – SPATELE PALMEI (back of the hand)
등 – SPATE (back)
엉덩이 – FESE (buttocks)
허리 – MIJLOC (waist)
다리 – PICIOR (leg)
발 – LABA PICIORULUI (foot)
목구멍 – GAT (throat)
겨드랑이 – AXILA (armpit)
팔꿈치 – COT (elbow)
손톱 – UNGHII (fingernail)
손바닥 – PALMA (palm)
발톱 – UNGHIILE DE LA PICIOARE (toenail)
발꿈치 – CALCAI (heel)
발목 – GLEZNA (ankle)
발등 – TALPA PICIORULUI (the instep of the foot)
배 – BURTA, ABDOMEN (abdomen)
배꼽 – BURIC, OMBILIC (navel)
피부 – PIELE (skin)
뼈 – OS (bone)
동맥 – ARTERA (artery)
정맥 – VENA (vein)

DEGETELE DE LA MANA (손가락의 명칭) finger names

엄지 – DEGETUL MARE (thumb)
검지 – INDEX (index finger)
중지 – DEGETUL MIJLOCIU (middle finger)
약지 – INELAR (ring finger)
새끼손가락 – DEGETUL MIC (little finger)

ORGANELE INTERNE (내부 기과) internal organs

뇌 – CREIER (brain)
심장 – INIMA (heart)
허파 (폐) – PLAMAN (lung)
간 – FICAT (liver)
쓸개 – VEZICA BILIARA (gallbladder)
위 – STOMAC (stomach)
신장 – RINICHI (kidney)
장 – INTESTINE (intestines)
방광 – VEZICA URINARA (bladder)

PERSOANE : Parti ale corpului – FATA (얼굴)

머리 (meori) – CAP (head)
머리카락 (meorikarak) – PAR (hair)
이마 – FRUNTE (forehead)
눈 (nun) – OCHI (eyes)
눈썹 (nun-seob) – SPRANCENE (eyebrow)
눈동자 (nundong-ja) – PUPILA (pupil)
코 (ko) – NAS (nose)
입 (ib) – GURA (mouth)
턱 (teok) – BARBIE (chin)
뺩 (불) (bbyab; bul) – OBRAZ (cheek)
귀 (gwi) – URECHE (ear)
입술 (ib-sul) – BUZE (lips)
이 (i) – DINTI (teeth)
잇몸 (it-mom) – GINGIE (gums)
혀 (hyo) – LIMBA
(tongue)

ALTE CUVINTE

여드름 (yeodeureum) – COS (pimple)
털 (teol) – FIR DE PAR (hair)
주근깨 (jugeunkke) – PISTRUI (freckle)
점 (jeom) – ALUNITA (mole)
턱수염 (teoksuyeom) – BARBA (beard)
귓불 (gwibul) – LOBUL URECHII (earlobe)
머리 모양 (meori moyang) – FREZURA (hair style)
짧은 머리 (jalbeun meori) – PAR SCURT (short hair)
긴 머리 (kin meori) – PAR LUNG (long hair)
생머리 (seng meori) – PAR DREPT (straight hair)
대머리 (dae meori) – CHEL (bald)
파마머리 (pama meori) – PERMANENT (perm)

FRAZE SI EXPRESII

얼굴을 씻다 (세수하다) – a se spala pe fata
손을 닦다 (손을 씻다) – a se spala pe maini
이를 닦다 (양치질하다) – a se spala pe dinti
입안을 헹구다 – a-si clati gura
머리를 감다 – a se spala pe cap
머리를 헹구다 – a-si clati parul
머리를 말리다 – a-si usca parul
코를 풀다 – a-si sufla nasul
눈을 뜨다/감다 – a deschide/ inchide ochii cuiva
입을 벌리다/ 다물다 – a deschide/a inchide gura cuiva
고개를 숙이다/들다 – a lasa/ a ridica capul cuiva
머리를 빗다 – a peria parul cuiva
머리를 묶다 – a strange parul cuiva (ponytail)