PARTI DE VORBIRE N보다/ GRAMMAR N보다

[RO]
– 보다 se foloseste atunci cand dorim sa facem o comparatie intre 2 lucruri, doua fapte sau doua situatii.
– se traduce in limba romana prin ‘mai …. decat’ ‘mai….comparativ cu’
– 보다 se adauga unui substantiv pentru a forma N (subst)이/가 보다~하다, insa ordinea sbstantivelor poate fi modificata fara ca propozitia sa isi schimbe sensul.

[ENG]
– 보다 is used when we want to make a comparison between2 things, 2 situation, e facts, etc.
– It correspond in English to ‘more….than’ or ‘-er ….than’.
– 보다 is added to a noun to form N이/가 보다~하다 ,but the noun with 보다 can be reversed with no change in meaning.

Exemplu/ Example:

사과보다 딸기를 좋아해요.
Imi plac mai mult capsunile decat merele.
I like more strawberries than apples.

어제보다 오늘이 추워요.
Azi este mai frig ca ieri.
Today is colder than yesterday.

동생보다 수영을 잘해요.
Inot mai bine decat fratele meu.
I swim better than my brother.

In conversatie / In conversation :

A : 안나씨 , 토요일이 바빠요, 일요일이 바빠요?
Ana, esti ocupata Sambata sau Duminica?
Anna, are you busy Saturday or Sunday?
B : 저는 일요일에 교회에 가요. 그래서 토요일보다 일요일이 더 바빠요.
Duminica merg la biserica. Asa ca sunt mai ocupata Duminica decat Sambata.
On Sunday I go to church. So, I am more busy on Sunday than Saturday.

A : 제주도하고 서울하고 어디가 더 따뜻해요?
Unde este mai cald, In Jeju sau in Seul?
Where is warmer, in Jeju or in Seoul?
B : 제주도가 서울보다 더 따뜻해요.
In Jeju este mai cald decat in Seul.
Jeju is warmer than Seoul.

PARTI DE VORBIRE N처럼, N같이/ GRAMMAR N처럼, N같이

[RO]
– 처럼/같이 exprima faptul ca o actiune sau un lucru este la fel sau aproape la fel ca substantivul dinaintea lui.
– are corespodent in limba romana pe “la fel ca” sau “la fel de….ca”

[ENG]
– 처럼/같이 expresses that some action or thing appears the same or very similar to the preceding noun.
– It corresponds to “like” or “as…as” in English.

Substantiv + 처럼/같이 – Noun + 처럼/같이

아기처럼 웃어요 (아기같이 웃어요) – Rad ca un copil / Laugh like a baby.
실크처럼 부드러워요 (실크같이 부드러워요 ) – Fin ca matasea. / Soft like silk.

De retinut!/ Check it out!
[RO]
-처럼/같이 este folosit de coreeni pentru a exprima caracteristici metaforice (cum ar fi compararea cu un animal sau orice lucru din natura).
– cateva exemple :

호랑이처럼 무섭다 (cineva infricosator/infricosator ca un tigru)
토끼처럼 귀업다 (cineva dragut/dragut ca un iepuras)
돼지처럼 뚱뚱하다 (cineva supraponderal/gras ca un porc ㅋㅋㅋ)
바다처럼 마음이 넓다 (cineva foarte generos/un suflet mare ca intinderea marii)

[ENG]
– 처럼/같이 are often used by Koreans to express characteristics metaphorically by comparing them to animals or other things in nature.
– some examples:

호랑이처럼 무섭다 (someone scary/scary like a tiger)
토끼처럼 귀업다 (someone cute/cute like a rabbit)
돼지처럼 뚱뚱하다 (someone overweight/ fat like a pig)
바다처럼 마음이 넓다 (someone very generous/ big heart like sea)

In conversatie / In conversation
A: 하민씨 여자 친구가 예뻐요?
Hamin iubita ta este frumoasa?
Hamin your girlfriend is pretty?

B: 네, 미스코리아처럼 예뻐요.
Da, e la fel de frumoasa ca Miss Coreea.
Yes, she is pretty like Miss Korea.

A: 서울이 복잡해요?
Orasul Seul este aglomerat?
Is Seoul crowded?

B: 네, 일본 도쿄처럼 복잡해요.
Da, este la fel de aglomerat ca Tokyo, Japonia.
Yes, it’s crowded like Tokyo, Japan.

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N쯤/ GRAMMAR N쯤

[RO]
– 쯤 se adauga la substantive care exprima numere, cantitati, perioade de timp, pentru a oferi o aproximare.
– are echivalent in limba romana pe “in jur de” sau “cam”.

[ENG]
– 쯤 is added to nouns denoting numbers, quantities and time to indicate approximation.
– it corresponds to ‘about’ or ‘around’ in English.

Exemple/ Examples:
Substantiva +쯤 / Noun + 쯤

한시 만납시다. /Ne intalnim in jurul orei 1./Let’s meet around 1.
두달 배웠어요. / Am invatat cam 2 luni/ I studied about 2 months.
50,000원 있어요./ Am in jur de 50.000 Won/ I have around 50,000 Won.

De retinut ! /Check it out!
Atunci cand dorim sa exprimam un pret, ‘substantiv쯤 하다 ‘ se foloseste mai des decat ‘substantiv쯤 이다‘.

Ex : 사과가 요즘 얼마쯤 해요?
Cat mai costa merele in zilele astea?
How much are the apples these days?
요즘 3개에 2,000원쯤 해요.
Zilele acestea sunt in jur de 2.000 Won pentru 3 mere.
These days they cost around 2,000 Won for 3 apples

In conversatie / In conversation:
A: 내일 몇 시쯤 만날까요?
Cam la ce ora ne vedem maine?
Around what time we’ll meet tomorrow?

B: 1시쯤 어때요? 수업이 12시 50분에 끝나요.
Ce parere ai (daca ne intalnim) in jurul orei 1? Ora mea (la scoala) se termina la 12.50.
How about around 1 o’clock? My class ends at 12.50.

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N(이)나 1 /GRAMMAR : N(이)나 1

[RO]
– Partea de vorbire N(이)나 se foloseste in situatiile in care avem de ales intre 2 substantive. Atunci cand substantivul de dinainte se termina in vocala, se adauga 나, iar atunci cand se termina in consoana, se adauga (이)나.
– In cazul adjectivelor si verbelor,-거나 se adauga la sfarsit.

[EN]
– (이)나 means that one of the two or more listed nouns will be chosen. When the preceding noun ends in a vowel, 나 is used, and when the noun ends in a consonant, 이나 is used.
– In case of adjectives and verbs, -거나 is added to the verb stem.

Substantive care se termina in vocale + 나/ Nouns ending in vowel + 나
수박을 사요.
Cumpar capsuni sau pepene /
I buy strwaberry or watermelon.

물을 마셔요.
Beau lapte sau apa /I drink milk or water.

산에 가요.
Ma duc la mare sau la munte / I go to the sea or to the mountains.

Substantive care se termina in consoane + 이나 / Nouns ending in consonants + 이나

이나 딸기를 사요.
Cumpar pepene sau capsuni / I buy watermelon or strawberry.

이나 우유를 마셔요.
Beau apa sau lapte / I drink water or milk.

이나 바다에 가요.
Ma duc la munte sau la mare / I go to the mountains or to the sea.

In conversatie / In conversation :

무엇을 살 거예요? Ce vei cumpara?/What will you buy?
구두 가방을 살 거예요. Voi cumpara pantofi sua geanta/ I’ll buy shoes or bag.
이 선생님이나 김 선생님에게 물어보세요.
Te rog intreaba-l pe profesorul Lee sau profesorul Kim.
Please ask teacher Lee or teacher Kim.

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE N(으)로 /GRAMMAR : N으로

Exista doua moduri de a interpreta aceasta parte de vorbire :

1. (으)로 exprima directia (catre un loc). Are echivalent in limba romana pe “catre” si “la”. Atunci cand substativul caruia ii este atribuita aceasta parte de vorbire se termina in vocala sau ㄹ, se adauga 로. Atunci cand se termina in consoana se adauga (으)로.

(으)로 expresses a direction (toward a place). It means “to” or ‘towards’ in English. When the preceding noun ends in a vowel or ㄹ,로 is used, and when the noun ends in a consonant, 으로 is added.

Exemplu/ Example :
오른쪽으 가세요. 은행이 나와요. / Mergeti catre dreapta. Veti vedea o banca./ Please go to the right. You’ll see a bank.

앞으 쭉 가세요. 우체국이 있어요. / Mergeti drept inainte. Acolo este posta / Go straight ahead. There’s a post office.

2. (으)로 se foloseste deasemenea atunci cand mentionam un mijloc de transport, unelte sau materiale pentru a construi ceva. Are corespondent in limba romana pe “din’ sau ‘cu/folosind”.

(으)로 is also used when expressing means of transport, tools and materials used to make something. This meaning corresponds to “by” or “with” and “from” in English.

Exemplu/ Example:
부산에 기차 갈 거예요. /
Am sa ma duc in Busan cu trenul./
I’ll go to Busan by train.

가위로 종이를 잘라요.
Tai hartia cu foarfeca.
I cut the paper with scissors.

밀가루 빵을 만들어요.
Fac paine din faina.
I make bread from flour.

Substantive care se termina in vocale sau ㄹ+로
Noun ending in vowels or ㄹ+로

버스 가요.
비행기 왔어요.
한국어 말하세요.
잘라요.

Substantive care se termina in consoane + 으로
Noun ending in consonant+ 으로

왼쪽으로 가세요.
오른쪽으로 가세요.
트럭으로 가요.
콩으로 만들어요.

Atunci cand folosim verbe pentru a exprima mijlocul de transport, in locul lui (으)로 vom folosi 아/어서.
When we are using a verb to express the way of trasnport, we will use 아/어서 instead of (으)로.

Exemplu/Example:

서울에서 부산까지 운전해서 갔어요.
Am condus din Seul pana in Busan.
I drove from  Seoul to Busan.

Diferente /Difference:

Care este diferenta intre 차로 왔어요 si 운전해서 왔어요?
차로 왔어요 inseamna ca persoana a calatorit cu masina, nefiind specificat daca persoana respectiva a condus sau a fost pasager.
In schimb, 운전해서 왔어요 inseamna ca persoana a condus defapt pana la destinatie.

What is the difference between 차로 왔어요 and 운전해서 왔어요?
차로 왔어요 means that the person traveled or got in the car without be mentioned if the person actually drove the car or was just a passanger.On the other hand, 운전해서 왔어요 can only be used when the subject actually drove the car.

In conversatie/ Conversation :

A: 실례합니다.은행이 어디에 있어요?
Ma scuzati, unde este banca?
Pardon me. Where is the bank?
B: 저 약국 앞에서 오근쪽으로 가세요.
Mergeti pana la farmacia aceea si faceti dreapta.
Go until that pharmacy and go to the right.

A: 이 과자가 맛있어요. 뭐 만들었어요?
Acest snack este foarte bun. Din ce este facut?
This snack is very good. What is made from?
B: 이과자는 쌀 만들었어요.
Aceasta prajiturica este facuta din orez.
This snack is made of rice.