VOCABULAR – INCALTAMINTE – FOOTWEAR – 신발

구두 (gudu) – PANTOFI DE PIELE (leather shoes)
하이힐 (haihil) – PANTOFI CU TOC (high heels)
운동화 (undonghwa) – PANTOFI SPORT, TENESI (sneakers, sport shoes)
등산화 (deungsanhwa) – BOCANCI (mountain boots)
부츠 (bucheu) – CIZME (boots)
샌들 (sendeul) – SANDALE (sandals)
고무신 (gomusin) – PANTOFI DE CAUCIUC (rubber shoes)
장화 (janghwa) – CIZME DE CAUCIUC (rainshoes)
밑창 (milchang) – TALPA (sole)
(gub) – TOC (heel)
(kkeun) – SIRET (shoestring)
구둣주건 (gudujugeon) – INCALTATOR (shoehorn)
슬리퍼 (seulipeu) – PAPUCI (slippers)

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VOCABULAR : LENJERIE – UNDERWEAR (속옷)

트렁크 팬티 (teureongkeu penti) – BOXERI (boxer shorts)
삼간팬티 (samkanpenti) – CHILOTI BARBATESTI ( briefs)
러닝셔츠 (reoning syeocheu) – MAIEU (undershirt)
브래지어 (beuraejieo) – SUTIEN (bra)
팬티 (penti) – CHILOTI (underpants)
거들 (geodeul) – BRAU, CORSET (girdle)
팬티스타킹 (pentiseutaking) – DRES (pantyhose)
밴드 스타킹 (bendseutaking) – CIORAPI DRES (knee-highs)

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE (PREPOZITII) : N 은/는

1.  은/는 se adauga la sfarsitul cuvantului despre care vorbitorul vrea sa vorbeasca sau sa explice intr-o propozitie pentru a arata ideea principala a propozitiei, a subiectului sau a discutiei. In limba romana s-ar traduce ca “in ceea ce priveste” sau “cu privire la”.
Pentru cuvintele care se termina in vocala, se aduaga 는, iar pentru cele care se termina in consoana, se aduaga 은.

은/는 is added to the end of what the speaker wants to talk about or explain in the sentence to designate it as the main idea, topic or issue of discussion. Can translate in english as ‘as for’ or ‘regarding’.
For words ending in a vowel, 는 is added, and for words ending in consonants, 은 is added.

Exemplu/ Example :

* 저 한국사람입니다.
Eu sunt coreean.
I am Korean.

* 안나씨 29살입니다.
Ana are 29 de ani.
Anna is 29 years old.

* 제 직업 변호사입니다.
Profesia mea este avocat.
I am lawyer.

2. 은/는 se foloseste de asemenea cand ne referim la un lucru sau un subiect care a fost deja mentionat inainte, sau cand vorbim despre ceva stiut de ambele parti ale conversatiei, de ambele persoane.
Cu alte cuvinte, 은/는 se foloseste atunci cand oferim informatii “vechi”.

은/는 is also used when we reffer to something mentioned earlier in a conversation or when we talk about something already known by both sides in the onversation.
In other words, 은/는 is used when expressing “old” informations.

Exemplu / Example :

* 저 내일 요코씨는 만나요, 요코씨 일본에서 왔어요.
Ma vad cu Yoko maine. Yoko (ea) a venit din Japonia.
I’ll meet Yoko tomorrow. Yoko (she) came from Japan.
* 저 작년에 뉴욕에 갔었어요. 뉴욕 정말 아름다웠어요.
Am fost in New York anul trecut. In New York a fost foarte frumos.
I went to New York last year. New York was really beautiful.

3. 은/는 se foloseste atunci cand comparam 2 lucruri, iar in astfel de cazuri poate fi atasat nu numai subiectului, ci si obiectului propozitiei.
은/는 is used when comparing two things, and in such cases it can be attached not only to subjects but also the objects or other parts of the sentence.

Exemplu / Example :

* 에릭 미국 사람이에요. 그렇지만 준호 한국사람이에요.
Eric este american. Insa Junho este coreean.
Eric is American. Junho, however is Korean.

In conversatie / In conversation

부모님 직업이 뭐해요?
Ce meserii au parintii tai?
What do your parents do?

아버지는 회사원이에요. 그리고 어머니는 선생님이에요.
Tata lucreaza pentru o companie. Mama este profesoara.
My father works for a company. My mother is teacher.

VOCABULAR : IMBRACAMINTE 2 (의류)

코트 (koteu) – PALTON (coat)
모피 코트 (mopi koteu) – HAINA DE BLANA (fur coat)
트렌치코트 (teurenchi koteu) – TRENCH (trench coat)
카디건 (kadigeon) – CARDIGAN (cardigan)
가죽 코트 (gajuk koteu) – HAINA DE PIELE (leather coat)
한복 (hanbok) – HAINA TRADITIONALA COREEANA (korean traditional cloth)
비옷 (bi-ot) – PELERINA DE PLOAIE (rain coat)
수영복 (suyeongbok) – COSTUM DE BAIE (swimsuit)
스키복 (seukibok) – COSTUM DE SKI (ski suit)
작업복 (jakeobbok) – HAINE DE LUCRU (work clothes)
교복 (kyeobok) – UNIFORMA SCOLARA (school uniform)
트레이닝복 (teureiningbok) – TRENING (sportswear)
잠옷, 파자마 (jamot, pajama) – PIJAMA (pajama)

사이즈 – MARIMI (size)

XL (특대) – EXTRA LARGE
L (대) – LARGE
M (중) – MEDIUM
S (소) – SMALL
XS (특소)- EXTRA SMALL

옷감 – TEXTURA MATERIAL, TESATURA (cloth texture)

(myeong) – BUMBAC (cotton)
(ma) – CANEPA (hemp)
(mo) – BLANA (fur)
실크 (견) (silk) – MATASE (silk)
레이온 (reion) – RAYON, CELOFIBRA (rayon)
나일론 (naillon) – NAILON (nylon)
(ul) – LANA (wool)

GRAMATICA : PARTI DE VORBIRE (PREPOZITII) : N 이/가

1. 이/가 se adauga intotdeauna la sfarsitul cuvantului care defineste subiectul propozitiei.
Pentru cuvinte care se termina in vocale, se adauga 가, iar pentru cele care se termina in consoane se adauga 이.

이/가 is added to the end of word to designate that word is the subject of the sentence.
For words ending in vowel, 가 is added, and for words ending in consonant, 이 is added.

Exemplu :

조엘씨 김지를 먹어요.
Joel mananca kimchi.
Joel eats kimchi.

과일 너무 비싸요.
Fructul este foarte scump.
The fruit is too expensive.

2. 이/가 se foloseste deasemenea pentru a sublinia cine va fi subiectul in propozitia urmatoare.
이/가 also functions to emphasize who will be the subject in the next sentence.

Exemplu :

누구음식을 준비할 거예요?
Cine va face de mancare?
Who will prepare the food?

준호씨 음식을 준비할 거예요.
Junho va face de mancare ( Ceea ce inseamna ca nimeni altcineva in afara de Junho nu va face de mancare)
Junho will prepare the food. (Meaning that only Junho will prepare the food, not anybody else).

안 왔어요?
Cine nu a sosit inca?
Who hasn’t arrived yet?

요코씨 안 왔어요.
Yoko nu a sosit.
Yoko hasn’t arrived.

3. 이/가 se foloseste pentru a exprima noi informatii intr-o propozitie.
이/가 is used to express new information in a sentence.

Exemplu :

옛날에 한 남자 살았어요. 그 남자는 아이들이 두 명 있었어요.
Acum multa vreme, traia un om. Acel om avea 2 copii.
Once upon a time, there lived a man. He had 2 kids.

In conversatie :

*누 제이슨씨예요?
Care din ei este Jason?
Which one is Jason?
저 사람 제이슨씨예요.
Persoana aceea (de acolo) este Jason.
That person (over there) is Jason.

* 어디 아파요?
Unde te doare?
Where does it hurts?
아파요.
Ma doare stomacul.
My somach hurts.

VOCABULAR : IMBRACAMINTE 1 (의류)

점퍼 (jeompeo) – GEACA DE FÂŞ ( jumper)
바지 ( baji) – PANTALONI (pants)
남방 (nambang) – CAMASA CU MANECA LUNGA (buttondown shirt)
와이셔츠 (waisyeocheu) – CAMASA (shirt)
조끼 (jokki) – VESTA (vest)
원피스 (weonpiseu) – ROCHIE (dress)
칠부바지 (chilbupaji) – PANTALONI 3 SFERTURI (cropped pants)
블라우스 (beullauseu) – BLUZA (blouse)
멜빵바지 (melbbangpaji) – SALOPETA (pants with suspenders)
티셔츠 (tisyeocheu) – TRICOU (t-shirt)
반바지 (banpaji) – PANTALONI SCURTI ( short pants)
웨딩드레스 (wedding dress) – ROCHIE DE MIREASA
턱시도 (teoksido) – COSTUM (tuxedo)
스웨터 (seuweteo) – PULOVER (sweater)
면바지 (myeonpaji) – PANTALONI DIN BUMBAC (cotton pants)
치마 (chima) – FUSTA (skirt)
청바지 (cheongpaji) – BLUGI (blue jeans)

GRAMATICA : NEGAREA 못 V-아/어요 (V-지 못해요)

Aceasta forma exprima imposibilitatea, lipsa abilitatii subiectului de a face ceva. Are ca echivalent in limba romana  pe ‘nu pot face’ sau in engleza ‘cannot’.
Se formeaza adaugand 못 in fata verbului sau -지 못해요 la sfarsitul verbului.

This pattern express the subject’s lack of ability to do something. It corresponds to the English ‘cannot’.
It is formed by adding 못 in front of the verb or  -지 못해요 to the end of the verb stem.

Exemplu:
못 + 가다 -> 못가요 .
가다 + 지 못해요 -> 가지 못해요.
Nu pot merge.
I cannot go.

못 + 요리하다 -> 요리 못해요.
Nu pot gati ( Nu stiu sa gatesc)
I cannot cook ( I don’t know how to cook).
Forma gresita (wrong form)
못 요리해요 (x)

못 + 읽다 -> 못 읽어요.
Nu pot citi.
I cannot read.

못 + *쓰다 ->  못 써요.
Nu pot scrie.
I cannot write.

Diferenta intre 안 (-지 않다) si 못 (지 못하다)
Difference between 안(-지 안다) and 못(지 못하다)

안 (-지 않다)
– se foloseste atat pentru verbe cat si pt adjective.
-combines with both verbs and adjectives.
● 학교에 안 가요.
Nu merg la scoala.
I don’t go to school.
● 치마가 안 예뻐요.
Fusta nu este frumoasa.
The skirt is not pretty.

– exprima optiunea de a nu face ceva, nu de a nu avea abilitatea de a face ceva.
-express not doing something regadless of ability or external conditions.
● 저는 운전을 안해요.
Eu nu conduc.
(Stiu sa conduc dar nu vreau)
I don’t drive.
( I know how but don’t want to)

● 오늘은 쇼핑을 하지 않아요.
Nu merg la shopping azi.
(Pur si simplu nu am chef sa merg azi la shopping).
I don’t go to shopping today.
( I simply don’t feel like going shopping).

못(-지 못하다)
– se foloseste pentru verbe, insa nu si pentru adjective.
– combines only with verbs

● 하교에 못가요.
Nu pot merge la scoala. (○)
I can’t go to school today.
● 치마가 못 예뻐요. (X)

– exprima incapacitatea, lipsa abilitatii de a face ceva.
-used when one is unable, or impossible to do something.

● 저는 운전을 못해요.
Nu pot conduce.
(As vrea sa conduc dar din anumite circumstante nu pot conduce, cum ar fi fracturarea unui picior sau lipsa permisului de conducere)
I can’t drive.
(I would like to be able to drive but can’t do it due to some circumstances , such as leg injury or no driving license).

● 오늘은  쇼핑을 하지 못해요.
Nu pot merge azi la shopping.
(Vreau sa merg la shopping dar nu pot din cauza unor circumstante anume, cum ar fi lipsa banilor sau a timpului).
I can’t go to shopping today.
(I want to go but can’t due to some circumstances, such as lack of time or money).

In conversatie :

운전해요?
Conduci?
Do you drive?
아니요, 운전 못해요. 운전을 안 배웠어요.
Nu, nu pot conduce. Nu am invatat sa conduc pana acum.
No, I can’t drive . I never learned how.

왜 밥을 안먹어요?
De ce nu mananci?
Why you don’t eat?
이가 아파요. 그래서 먹지 못해요.
Ma doare maseaua. Nu pot manca.
My teeth hurt, so I can’t eat.

                

VOCABULAR: PERSOANE – SENTIMENTE 느낌 표현 2

고맙다 (gomabda)- RECUNOSCATOR (to be thankful)
미안하다 (mianhada) – A-I PAREA RAU (to be sorry)
좋아하다 (johahada)- A PLACEA (to like)
사랑하다 (saranghada) – A IUBI (to love)
염려하다 (yeomryeohada) – A FI INGRIJORAT (to be worry)
부러워하다 (bureowohada) – A INVIDIA ( to be envious)
외롭다 (wereobda)-  A SE SIMTII SINGUR  (to feel lonely)
우울하다 (u-ulhada) – A FI DEPRIMAT (to be depressed)
당황하다 (danghwanghada)- A FI CONFUZ (to be confused)
피곤하다 (pigonhada) – A FI OBOSIT ( to  be tired)
졸리다 (jollida)- A FI SOMNOROS (to feel sleepy)
무섭다 (museobda)- A FI SPERIAT (to be scared)
놀랍다 (nollabda) – A FI SURPRINS ( to be surprised)
안심하다 (ansimhada) – A FI USURAT (to be relieved)
초조하다 (chojohada)- A FI TULBURAT (to feel anxious)
편안하다 (pyeonanhada) – A FI LINISTIT ( to be peaceful)
불안하다 (bul-anhada)- A FI NESIGUR (to be insecure)
행복하다 (haengbokhada) – A FI FERICIT (to be happy)
불행하다 (bulhaenghada)-  A FI NEFERICIT (to be unfortunated)
만만하다 (manmanhada)- A FI USOR (to be easy)
지루하다 (jiruhada)- A FI PLICTISITOR (to be boring)
자신 있다 (jasin issda)- A FI CONFIDENT ( to feel confident)
두렵다 (duryeobda)- A FI TEMATOR ( to be afraid)
찌증나다 (jjijeungnada) – A DEVENI ENERVANT ( to become annoyed)
심심하다 (simsimhada) – A FI PLICTISIT (din lipsa de actovitate) ( to be bored)
답답하다 (dabdabhada)- A SE SIMTII SUFOCAT (to be stuffy)
반갑다 ( banggabda) –  A FI INCANTAT (to be pleased)

GRAMATICA : NEGAREA 안 A/V 아/어요 (A/V -지 않아요)

Aceasta forma se adauga la verbe si adjectivele pentru a nega o actiune sau o stare.
Se formeaza adaugand 안 in fata verbului sau adjectivului sau -지 않아요 la sfarsitul verbului sau a adjectivului.

This pattern is added to verbs and adjectives to negate an action or state. It is formed by adding 안 to the front of verbs and adjectives or 지 않아요 to the end of verbs and adjectives.

안 + 가다 -> 안 가요. Nu merg (I don’t go)
안 + 크다 -> 안 커요. Nu este inalt (Is not tall)

가다 + 지 않아요 -> 가지 않아요.
크다 + 지 않아요 -> 크지 않아요.

Pentru ca verbele care se formeaza din substantiv +하다, negarea se va forma adaugand 안  in  fata verbului formand 안 하다.
Pe de alta parte, adjectivele se pot nega adaugand 안 in fata, formand ‘안 +adjectiv’.
De notat : pentru verbele 좋아하다 (a placea) sau 싫어하다 (a urî), pentru ca ele nu sunt formate prin forma ‘substantiv + 하다 ‘, ci mai degraba verbe “invizibile” , verbe singulare, negarea lor se va face astfel :
안 좋아하다/ 좋아하지 않다
sau
안 싫어하다/ 싫어히지 읺다

Because verbs that end in 하다 are formed from ‘ Noun + 하다’ , they are negated by adding 안 to the front of the verb, forming ‘Noun 안하다’.
Adjectives, on the other hand, are negated by adding 안 to the front, as in ‘안 + adjective’. Note, however, that for the verbs 좋아하다 (to like) and 싫어하다 ( to hate, to dislike) , because they are not verbs in the form of ‘noun +하다, but single verbs, invisible, they are written as : 안 좋아하다/ 좋아하지 않다 and 안 싫어하다/ 싫어히지 않다.

Exemple de verbe sau adjective :

안 + 일하다 -> 일 안해요 ( Nu lucrez)
일하다 + 지않아요 -> 일하지 않아요
안 + 친절하다 -> 안 친절해요 ( Neprietenos)
친절하다 + 지않아요 -> 친절하지 않아요
안 + 좋아하다 -> 안좋아해요/ 좋아하지 않아요
forma gresita : 좋아 안해요 (X)
wrong sentence

* Chiar daca 안 si 지 않다 pot fi folosite la forme declarativ si interogativ, aceste nu pot fi folosite la imperativ sau propozitiv.

Although 안 and 지 않다 can be used in declarative and interrogative sentences, they cannot be used in imperative or propositive sentences.

• 안가십시오 / 가지 않으십시오 (X)
-> 가지 미십시오 (○) ,forma corecta
Te rog nu pleca ( please don’t go)

• 안 먹읍시다 / 먹지 않읍시다 (X)
-> 먹지 맙시다 (○), forma corecta
Hai sa nu mancam ( let’t not eat)

In conversatie:

불고기를 좋아해요?
Iti place bulgogi?
Do you like bulgogi?

아니요, 저는 고기를 안 먹어요.
Nu, eu nu mananc carne.
No, I don’t eat meat.

토요일에 회사에 가요?
Mergi la birou Sambata?
Do you go to office on Saturdays?

아니요, 토요일에는 가지 않아요.
Nu, Sambata nu lucrez.
No, on Saturdays I don’t work.